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Author's Example References: 
 
1.        AMA Guides to the Evaluation of Impairment 4th Edition, The Spine, p.94-111, 1993 AMA publications 
 
2.        Battié M.C, Bigos, S.J, Fisher, L.D., Spengler, D.M, Hansson, T.H, Nachemson, A.L., and Wortley, D.  The Role of Spinal Flexibility in Back Pain Complaints within Industry: A Prospective Study.  Spine, 15(8):768-773, 1990. 
 
3.        Bigos, S.J., Battié, M.C., Fisher, L.D., Fordyce, W.E., Hansson, T.H., Nachemson, A.L., Spengler, D.M.:  A Longitudinal, Prospective Study of Industrial Back Injury Reporting.  Clinical Ortho and Related Research., 279:21-34, 1992. 
 
4.        Bigos, S.J., Battié, M.C., Fisher, L.D., Fordyce, W.E., Hansson, T.H., Nachemson, A.L., and Spengler, D.M.:  A Prospective Study of Work Perceptions and Psychosocial Factors Affecting the Report of Back Injury.  Spine, 16(1):1-6, 1991. 
 
5.        Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G, Brown K, Deyo R, Haldeman S, Hart J, Johnson E, Keller R, Kido D, Liang M, Nelson R, Nordin M, Owen B, Pope M, Schwartz R, Stewart Hr. D, Susman J, Triano J, Tripp L, Turk D, Watts C, Weinstein J.  Acute Low Back Problems in Adults. Clinical Practice Guide No 14.  AHCPR Publication No. 95-0642.  Rockville, MD; Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  December 1994. Acknowledgements:  Consultants: Battié M, Bombardier C, Hadler N, Nachemson A, Waddell G, Webster J.  Methodologists: Schriger D, Shekelle P. Staff: Holland J, Webster M, Baker R, Mounce D, Vaegter K, Novell L.  Agency staff: Guillain H, Lanier D, Bennett H, Carp K. 
 
6.        Gundewall B, Liljeqvist M, Hansson T.: Primary Prevention of Back Symptoms and Absence from Work.  Spine 1993; 18 (5): p587-594 
 
7.        Hultman, G. The healthy back, its environment and characteristics: a pilot study. In Ergonomics 1987 Feb. 30(2), p. 295-8. 
 
8.        Lowery W, Horn T, Boden S, Wiesel S.  Impairment Evaluation based on Spinal Range of Motion in Normal Subjects. J Spinal Disorders, pp. 398-402. December 1992. 
 
9.        Malmivaara A, Hokkinen U, Aro T, et al: The treatment of acute low back pain-bed rest, exercises, or ordinary activity?  N Engl J Med 1995; 332:352-355. 
 
10.        Nachemson AL, Bigos SJ, The Low Back.  In Adult Orthopedics, Chapter 16. Cruess RL, Renne WRJ, ed. Churchill & Livingstone, New York 1984, pp.843-937. (Extrapolated Posner lumbar spine clinical instability findings) 
 
11.        Posner I, et al.  A biomechanical analysis of the clinical stability of the lumbar and lumbosacral spine.  Spine 7:374, 1982. 
 
12.        White, AA, Johnson RM, Panjabi MM, and Southwick WO.  Biomechanical Analysis of Clinical Stability in the Cervical Spine. Clin Orthop. 109:85, 1975. 
 
13.        Bigos SJ, Mills EH, McKee JE, Holland JP, Spine Injury Model Impairment Rating. ABIME vol.2 No.1 Jan.-March 2002 
 
POSTSCRIPT 
 
    The basis for this handbook is methodology for evaluating the literature for the federally mandated Agency for Health Care Policy & Research expert panel on back problems as listed in the bibliography.  The methodological review of the back literature sought scientific evidence of benefit versus risks for evaluation and care methods relevant to back problems.  The result is a scientific basis for making recommendations about evaluation and treatment methods for spine patients.  The multidisciplinary panel of twenty-three national and seven international experts summarized "Findings and Recommendation" statements about reliability and safety as listed in the AHCPR Summary.  These scientific statements resulted from originally forming evidence tables created on 360 articles from over 10,000 screened articles. 
 
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