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Back Problems Guideline Panel       
Stanley J. Bigos, MD, Chair 
Orthopedic Surgery    Dr. Bigos is Professor of Orthopedic Surgery and Environmental Health at the University of Washington School of Medicine and founder and director of the Spine Resource Clinic in Seattle.  He is the author of numerous articles and book chapters focusing on back problems in industry and the management of back disorders.  He has contributed to a new method of spine evaluation included in the American Medical Association's "Guidelines to Evaluate Permanent Impairment, 4th edition, 1993" and also serves as Consultant to the Clinical Standards Advisory Group of the British Department of Health.  Among his many honors, Dr.  Bigos received from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in 1991 the Kappa Delta Award for Orthopedic Excellence for his "sentinel" work on industrial back problems. 
Rev. O. Richard Bowyer 
Consumer   Rev. Bowyer has experienced low back pain for many years.  He is campus minister at Fairmont State College, West Virginia, and also serves on the Board of Directors and Quality Assurance Committee of the Monongahela Valley Association of Health Centers.  From 1981-1993 he was a consumer member of the West Virginia Board of Medicine and served as chairperson of the Board's Complaints Committee. 
G. Richard Braen, MD 
Emergency Medicine   Dr. Braen is a practicing emergency physician at Buffalo General Hospital and Professor and Chairman of the Department of Emergency Medicine at State University of New York, Buffalo.  Certified by both the American Board of Emergency Medicine and the American Board of Internal Medicine, he has served on several guideline panels established by the American College of Emergency Physicians.  He is currently President of the American Board of Emergency Medicine. 
Kathleen Brown, PhD, RN 
Occupational Health Nursing   Dr. Brown is Professor in the School of Nursing of the University of Alabama at Birmingham and director of Occupational Health Nursing for the NIOSH-funded Educational Resource Center for Occupational Health and Safety.  Her research and publications have focused on the cost- effectiveness of back school interventions and the effect of back school education and exercise on back-injured municipal workers.  She is principal investigator of an NIH-funded study of worksite education and exercise to prevent back injuries. 
Richard Deyo, MD, MPH 
Internal Medicine   Dr. Deyo, a general internist, is Professor in the Departments of Medicine and Health Services at the University of Washington School of Medicine, and staff physician at the Seattle Veterans Affairs Medical Center.  He is principal investigator of the low back pain Patient Outcome Research Team (PORT) and has published widely on the diagnosis and treatment of low back problems in primary care and on the measurement of quality-of-life and outcomes of surgery for patients with back pain. 
Scott Haldeman, DC, MD, PhD 
Neurology/Chiropractic   Dr. Haldeman is trained in chiropractic and is board certified in neurology, neurophysiology and electrodiagnosis.  He is an Associate Clinical Professor of Neurology at the University of California, Irvine, and an Adjunct Professor at Los Angeles Chiropractic College.  He is past president of the North American Spine Society and the North American Academy of Manipulative Medicine and has published widely in the fields of electrodiagnosis, spinal manipulation, and back pain. 
John L. Hart, DO 
Rehabilitation Medicine   Dr. Hart serves as Director of Outpatient Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Still Regional Medical Center in Columbia, Missouri.  His research interests include nonoperative treatment of herniated discs and the relationship of employee/employer interactions to the symptoms of low back pain. 
Ernest W. Johnson, MD 
Physical Medicine/Rehabilitation   Dr. Johnson served for 25 years as Chair of the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the Ohio State University College of Medicine before assuming his present position as Professor and Associate Dean for External Affairs.  He is past president of the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, the Association of Academic Physiatrists, and the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine. The author of numerous articles on electromyography, he serves as Chair of the American Board of Electrodiagnostic Medicine. 
Robert Keller, MD 
Orthopedic Surgery 
  Dr. Keller serves as Executive Director of the Maine Medical Assessment Foundation and is a member of the Council on Health Policy and Practice of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.  He is co-investigator of the Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) evaluating low back pain and surgical outcomes and has published on the subject of small area analysis and physician behavior change.  A past president of the Maine Medical Association, he is an Adjunct Professor of Community and Family Medicine and Surgery in the Dartmouth Medical School. 
Daniel Kido, MD, FACR 
  Dr. Kido is a Professor of Radiology and Director of the Neuroradiology Section of the Mallinckrodt Institute of Washington University School of Medicine in St.  Louis, Missouri.  His research and publications have focused on the assessment of imaging techniques to evaluate low back pain, including MRI, CT, and myelography.  He has also compared invasive and noninvasive imaging procedures of the low back, documenting frequency of complications. 
Matthew H. Liang, MD, MPH 
Internal Medicine/Rheumatology 
  Dr. Liang is an Associate Professor in the Departments of Medicine and Rheumatology at Harvard Medical School.  He also serves as medical director of rehabilitation services at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. His major research interests include outcome assessment of low back problems, cost-effectiveness of diagnostic procedures, and outcomes of spinal stenosis surgery. 
Roger M. Nelson, PT, PhD 
Physical Therapy 
  Dr. Nelson is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Physical Therapy at the Thomas Jefferson University College of Allied Health Sciences.  His clinical interests include electromyography and measurements of outcome and satisfaction of low back pain patients.  He is a contributor to the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Low Back Atlas on the subject of tests and measures for the assessment of low back pain. 
Margareta Nordin, RPT, DrSci 
Orthopedic Research 
  Dr. Nordin is Research Associate Professor and Director of the Occupational and Industrial Orthopaedic Center of the Hospital for Joint Diseases in New York City.  Her primary research interest is the prevention of chronicity among patients with low back pain.  She has published extensively on the biomechanics, ergonomics, and early care of low back pain. 
Bernice D. Owen, PhD, RN 
Community Health Nursing 
  Dr. Owen is a Professor in the School of Nursing of the Center for Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison.  Her work as a teacher and researcher has focused on back stress among health care personnel and the reduction of physical demands on the back in occupational settings. She currently serves as a consultant on back injury reduction programs to hospitals, long-term care facilities, and home care agencies. 
Malcolm H. Pope, DrMedSc, PhD 
Orthopedic Research/Biomedical Engineering 
  Dr. Pope is Professor of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Iowa and serves as Director of the Iowa Spine Research Center.  Before coming to Iowa, he was Director of Orthopaedic Research at the University of Vermont.  His research and numerous publications have focused on the biomechanics of low back pain, ergonomics, and the primary and secondary prevention of low back problems. 
Richard K. Schwartz, MS, OTR, FSR 
Occupational Therapy 
  Mr. Schwartz has treated work-related injuries since 1972.  He is currently in private practice as an occupational therapy consultant on injury prevention, ergonomics, and early return-to-work programs.  Before 1992 he was Associate Professor and Chairman of Occupational Therapy at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. 
Donald H. Stewart, Jr., MD 
  Until his retirement in 1993, Dr.  Stewart was in private practice as a neurosurgeon in Syracuse, New York.  He also served as Clinical Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery at the State University of New York, Syracuse. He has published widely on medical economics and medical liability. 
Jeff Susman, MD 
Family Practice 
  Dr. Susman is Associate Professor, Director of Primary Care, and Vice Chairperson of the Department of Family Practice at the University of Nebraska Medical Center.  A member of the American Academy of Family Physicians' Task Force on Clinical Policies, he is interested in clinical decisionmaking by physicians and the effects of guidelines on health provider behavior. 
John J. Triano, MA, DC 
  Dr. Triano is a staff chiropractic physician and a clinical research scientist at the Texas Back Institute in Plano, Texas.  He coordinates the work of interdisciplinary teams in the rehabilitation of patients with spinal pain and conducts research on spine biomechanics and the outcomes of patients treated for spinal problems.  He has served as a consultant to the U.S.  Department of Labor and NIOSH training programs and is a Professor at the National College of Chiropractic, Lombard, Illinois. 
Lucius C. Tripp, MD, MPH, FACPM 
Industrial Medicine/Neurosurgery 
  Dr. Tripp, a neurosurgeon, is board certified in Occupational Medicine and Addiction Medicine.  He serves as Medical Director of the General Motors-Henry Ford Hospital Rehabilitation Center in Warren, Michigan, and is actively involved in research on the prevention of back injury and restoration of function in patients with back pain.  He is a member of the Board of Directors of the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 
Dennis C. Turk, PhD 
  Dr. Turk is a Professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Anesthesiology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.  He serves as Director of the University's Pain Evaluation and Treatment Institute, a large interdisciplinary facility that annually evaluates and treats over 1,500 new patients, the majority of whom have back pain.  His current research is directed toward examination of the role of psychological factors in back pain and the accompanying disability. 
Clark Watts, MD, JD 
  Dr.  Watts is a Professor of Neurosurgery at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.  As editor of Neurosurgery from 1982-1987, he was responsible for evaluating and publishing research on the care of low back problems.  His own research has focused on the nature of discogenic pain and the clinical management (operative and nonoperative) of low back problems. 
James N. Weinstein, DO 
Orthopedic Surgery 
  Dr.  Weinstein is a Professor in the Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Biomedical Engineering and is Director of the Spine Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.  His research has focused on the basic mechanisms of pain and aging, the diagnosis and treatment of spinal tumors, and the evaluation of outcomes for patients with low back pain.  He is currently Editor-in-Chief of the journal Spine. 
Project Directors: 
John P. Holland, MD, MPH 
University of Washington 
Seattle, Washington 
John S. Webster, MD 
Naval Regional Medical Center 
San Diego, California 
Michele C. Battie, PhD, PT 
Orthopedic Research 
University of Washington 
Seattle, Washington 
Claire Bombardier, MD, FRCP 
Rheumatology/Clinical Epidemiology 
University of Toronto 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
Nortin M. Hadler, MD 
University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 
Alf L. Nachemson, MD, PhD 
Orthopaedic Surgery 
Göteborg University 
Göteborg, Sweden 
Gordon Waddell, MD 
Orthopaedic Surgery 
Western Infirmary 
Glasgow, Scotland 
David L. Schriger, MD, MPH 
UCLA Medical School 
Los Angeles, California 
Paul G. Shekelle, MD, MPH 
Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center 
West Los Angeles, California 
Panel Staff 
Mary M. Webster, MA 
Seattle, Washington 
Laura Novell 
St. Louis, Missouri 
Keld Vaegter, MD 
Kalix, Sweden 
AHCPR Staff: 
David Lanier, MD, MFA 
Project Officer 
Randie A. Siegel 
Managing Editor 
Harriet V. Bennett 
Karen Carp 
Public Affairs Specialists 
Peer Reviewers 1 
1  Being listed in this section does not necessarily imply endorsement of 
the guideline products. 
Lucien Abenhaim, MD, MSc, ScD 
McGill University 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada 
Gad Alon, PhD, PT 
University of Maryland 
Department of Physical Therapy 
Baltimore, Maryland 
Michael Andary, MD 
Michigan State University 
College of Osteopathic Medicine 
East Lansing, Michigan 
Gunnar B.J. Andersson, MD, PhD 
Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center 
Chicago, Illinois 
Howard A. Balduc, DC 
American Chiropractic Association 
Arlington, Virginia 
Judith C. Bautch, PhD, RN, CS 
University of Wisconsin 
School of Nursing 
Madison, Wisconsin 
James R. Bean, MD 
Neurosurgical Associates 
Lexington, Kentucky 
Alfred O. Berg, MD, MPH 
University of Washington 
Seattle, Washington 
Stephen Blood, DO 
American Academy of Osteopathy 
Indianapolis, Indiana 
Wilbur J. Boike, MD 
Center for Comprehensive Back Care 
Flint, Michigan Richard H. Borman, MD 
University of California 
San Diego, California 
Albert M. Brady, MD 
Harris Methodist Health System 
Fort Worth, Texas 
Phillip O. Bridenbaugh, MD 
University of Cincinnati Medical Center 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Jerry M. Calkins, PhD, MD 
University of Arizona 
Department of Anesthesiology 
Phoenix, Arizona 
J. David Cassidy, DC, PhD 
Royal University Hospital 
Department of Orthopaedics 
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada 
C. Richard Chapman, PhD 
University of Washington 
Department of Anesthesiology 
Seattle, Washington 
Steven G. Charapata, MD 
Pain Management Associates 
Kansas City, Missouri 
Joy White Danches, MOT, OTR 
Visionary Management, Inc. 
Dallas, Texas 
Marsha Courville Davis, MSN, RN, CRRN 
Association of Rehabilitation Nurses 
Jackson, Mississippi 
Douglas E. DeGood, PhD 
University of Virginia Health Sciences Center 
Charlottesville, Virginia 
Anthony Delitto, PT, PhD 
University of Pittsburgh 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
Mark A. Doyne, MD, FACPE 
Texas Back Institute 
Dallas, Texas 
Daniel A. Dyrek, MS, PT 
Massachusetts General Hospital 
Boston, Massachusetts 
Frank Eismont, MD 
University of Miami School of Medicine 
Miami, Florida 
Maury R. Ellenberg, MD, FACP 
Wayne State University School of Medicine 
Detroit, Michigan 
Julia Faucett, RN, PhD 
University of California 
San Francisco, California 
Morris A. Fisher, MD 
Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine 
Chicago, Illinois 
Gary M. Franklin, MD, MPH 
University of Washington 
Occupational Epidemiology 
Seattle, Washington 
Todd D. Gastaldo, DC 
Private Chiropractic Research 
Sunnyvale, California 
Sharon J. Gates 
The Graduate Hospital 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Michael Goertz, MD, MPH 
Airport Medical Clinic 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
Michael K. Greenberg, MD 
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences 
Bethesda, Maryland 
J. Eric Griffiths, DC 
Wheat Ridge Chiropractic Center 
Denver, Colorado 
Daniel T. Hansen, DC, FICC 
Private Practice of Chiropractic 
Olympia, Washington 
Dennis L. Hart, PhD, PT 
Rehability Corporation 
Falls Church, Virginia 
Jodie K. Haselkorn, MD, MPH 
Veterans Affairs Medical Center 
Seattle, Washington 
Stanley A. Herring, MD 
Puget Sound Sports and Spine Physicians 
Seattle, Washington 
Paul D. Howard, PhD, PT 
Thomas Jefferson University 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Thomas E. Hyde, DC, CCSP 
American Chiropractic Association Sports Council 
North Miami Beach, Florida 
Susan J. Isernhagen, PT 
Isernhagen & Associates, Inc. 
Duluth, Minnesota 
Manucher J. Javid, MD 
University of Wisconsin 
Department of Neurosurgery 
Madison, Wisconsin 
John H. Juhl, DO 
American Academy of Osteopathy 
New York, New York 
Neil Kahanovitz, MD 
Anderson Clinic 
Arlington, Virginia 
Robert D. Kerns, PhD 
West Haven VA Medical Center 
Yale University 
West Haven, Connecticut 
Myron M. LaBan, MD, FACP 
William Beaumont Hospital 
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 
Royal Oak, Michigan 
Ruth A. Larkin, RN 
North Colorado Medical Center 
Greeley, Colorado 
Casey K. Lee, MD 
New Jersey Medical School 
Department of Orthopaedics 
Newark, New Jersey 
Daniel Lessard 
Back Health Medical Centers 
Seattle, Washington 
Stephen M. Levin, MD 
American Academy of Orthopaedic Medicine 
Vienna, Virginia 
Philipp M. Lippe, MD, FACS, FACPM 
American Academy of Pain Medicine 
Skokie, Illinois 
Michael D. Lockshin, MD 
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases 
National Institutes of Health 
Bethesda, Maryland 
John D. Loeser, MD 
University of Washington 
Seattle, Washington 
Don M. Long, MD, PhD 
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine 
Baltimore, Maryland 
Sally L. Lusk, PhD, RN, FAAN 
University of Michigan 
School of Nursing 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 
Norman J. Marcus, MD 
New York Pain Treatment Program 
Lenox Hill Hospital 
New York, New York 
Stephen C. Marini, MS, DC, PhD 
Pennsylvania College of Chiropractic 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Tom G. Mayer, MD 
Southwestern Medical School 
Department of Orthopedics 
Dallas, Texas 
George B. McClelland, DC 
Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research 
Arlington, Virginia 
William A. McIlwain, MD, FACS 
Bristol Regional Medical Center 
Bristol, Tennessee 
William C. Meeker, DC, MPH 
Palmer College of Chiropractic-West 
San Jose, California 
Christine Miaskowski, RN, PhD 
University of California 
San Francisco, California 
Edward H. Mills, MD 
U.S. Department of Labor 
Seattle, Washington 
Michael Mittelmann, MD 
Aetna Life and Casualty 
Hartford, Connecticut 
Vert Mooney, MD 
University of California 
San Diego, California 
Mary T. Muffroid, PhD, PT 
University of Vermont 
Burlington, Vermont 
Albert M. Murtland, MD 
Guthrie Clinic 
Sayre, Pennsylvania 
David E. Nestor, MS, PT, ECS 
U.S. Public Health Service 
Rochester, Minnesota 
E.J. Nordby, MD 
University of Wisconsin Medical School 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Jane E. Parker-Conrad, PhD, RN 
Walters State College 
Morristown, Tennessee 
Richard Payne, MD 
University of Texas 
M.D. Anderson Cancer Center 
Houston, Texas 
Reed B. Phillips, DC, PhD 
Los Angeles College of Chiropractic 
Whittier, California 
William R. Phillips, MD, MPH 
University of Washington 
Seattle, Washington 
Vern Putz-Anderson, PhD 
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Jan K. Richardson, PT, PhD 
Slippery Rock University 
School of Physical Therapy 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
Hubert L. Rosomoff, MD, DMedSc 
University of Miami School of Medicine 
Department of Neurological Surgery 
Miami, Florida 
Renee Steele Rosomoff, RN, MBA, CRC 
University of Miami 
Comprehensive Pain and Rehabilitation Center 
Miami Beach, Florida 
Michel Rossignol, MD, FRCPC 
McGill University 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada 
Donald Sheffel, MD 
Memorial Hospital 
Division of Neurosurgery 
Hollywood, Florida 
Dennis Shubert, MD, PhD 
Neurosurgical Associates 
Bangor, Maine 
Stover H. Snook, PhD 
Liberty Mutual Insurance Company 
Hopkinton, Massachusetts 
Jody L. Snow, PT 
Sacred Heart Medical Center 
The Rehabilitation Center 
Spokane, Washington 
Dan M. Spengler, MD 
Vanderbilt University Medical Center 
Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation 
Nashville, Tennessee 
Richard L. Stieg, MD 
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center 
Department of Neurology 
Denver, Colorado 
Rand S. Swenson, DC, MD, PhD 
Dartmouth Medical School 
Hanover, New Hampshire 
Robert L. Swezey, MD, FACP, FACR 
Arthritis & Back Pain Center 
Santa Monica, California 
Peter J. Vicente, PhD 
Good Samaritan Hospital 
Pain Rehabilitation Center 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Nicholas E. Walsh, MD 
University of Texas Health Science Center 
San Antonio, Texas 
Barbara S. Webster, RPT, PA-C 
American Academy of Physician Assistants 
Alexandria, Virginia 
Debra Weiner, MD 
Duke University Medical Center 
Durham, North Carolina 
Arthur H. White, MD 
San Francisco Spine Institute 
San Francisco, California 
John W. Wickenden, MD 
Penobscot Bay Medical Center 
Rockport, Maine 
Sam W. Wiesel, MD 
Georgetown University Medical Center 
Department of Orthopaedics 
Washington, DC 
Arthur Winter, MD, FICS 
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey 
New Jersey Neurological Institute 
Livingston, New Jersey 
Hansen A. Yuan, MD 
State University of New York 
Syracuse, New York 
Pilot Reviewers  1 
1 Being listed in this section does not necessarily imply endorsement of 
the guideline products. 
Douglas A. Benner, MD 
Kaiser Permanente 
Oakland, California 
James E. Blessman, Jr., MD, MPH 
Wayne State University 
Detroit, Michigan 
Michael Erdil, MD 
Industrial Medical Care Center 
Hartford, Connecticut 
Don C. Fisher, MD, MS 
Presbyterian Occupational Health Network 
Albuquerque, New Mexico 
Garry A. Goldstein, MD 
General Motors Corporation 
Wilmington, Delaware 
Robert J. Gorman, MD, MPH 
Park Nicollet Medical Center 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
Rowland G. Hazard, MD 
University of Vermont 
Burlington, Vermont 
Timothy J. Key, MD, MPH 
University of Alabama School of Medicine 
Birmingham, Alabama 
Ron R. Loeppke, MD, MPH 
Corporate Health and Medical Programs, Inc. 
Greeley, Colorado 
Christel Mottur-Pilson, PhD 
Internal Medicine Center to Advance Research & Education (IMCARE) 
Washington, DC 
Julie Graves Moy, MD, MPH 
Baylor College of Medicine 
Houston, Texas 
Dennis A. Plante, MD 
University of Vermont 
Burlington, Vermont 
Louis Sportelli, DC 
Private Practice 
Palmerton, Pennsylvania 
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