Prior Page                                 Next Page 
For Cervical Spine References - Click Here         For Author's Example References - Click Here 
Back References Below: 
 
 1.  Andersson GBJ.  The epidemiology of spinal disorders.  In: Frymoyer JW, editor.  The adult spine: principles and practice.  New York: Raven Press, Ltd.;1991.  p. 107-46. 
 
 2.  Vallfors B. Acute, subacute and chronic low back pain: Clinical symptoms, absenteeism and working environment.  Scand J Rehab Med Suppl 1985;11:1-98.  
      
       2a. Hart LG, Deyo RA, Cherkin DC. Physician office visits for low back pain: Frequency, clinical evaluation, and treatment patterns from a U.S. national survey. Spine. 1995;20:11-19. 
 
 2.a Cassidy JD, Carroll LJ, Cote P. The Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey: the prevalence of low back pain and related disability in Saskatchewan adults. Spine 1998;23:1860-66. 
 
2b. Deyo RA, Mirza SK, Martin BI. Back pain prevalence and visit rates. Spine. 2006;31(23):2724-2727. 
 
2c. Carey TS, Evans AT, Hadler NM, et al. Acute severe low back pain: A population-based study of prevalence and care-seeking. Spine. 1996;221:339-344. 
 
 3.  Sternbach RA.  Survey of pain in the United States: The Nuprin pain report. Clin J Pain 1986;2(1):49-53. 
 
 4.  Cunningham LS, Kelsey JL.  Epidemiology of musculoskeletal impairments and associated disability.  Am J Public Health 1984;74: 574-9.  
 
4a: Biering-Sorensen F, Lund J, Hoydalsmo OJ, Darre EM, Deis A, Kryger P, Muller CF. Risk indicators of disability pension. A 15 year follow-up study. Dan Med Bull 1999 Jun;46(3):258-62 
 
 5.  Cypress BK.  Characteristics of physician visits for back symptoms: A national perspective.  Am J Public Health 1983 Apr;73(4):389-95.   
 
 6. Spengler DM, Bigos SJ, Martin NA, Zeh J,, Nachemson A. Back injuries in industry: a retrospective study.  I.  Overview and cost analysis.  Spine 1986 Apr;11(3):241-56.  
 
 6b. 8. Frymoyer JW, Cats-Baril WL. An overview of the incidences and costs of low back pain. Orthop Clin North Am. 1991;22:263-271. 
 
6a. Linton SJ, Ryberg M. Do epidemiological results replicate? The prevalence and health-economic consequences of neck and back pain in the general population. Eur J Pain. 2000;4(4):347-54.  
 
6a. Pengel LH, Herbert RD, Maher CG, Refshauge KM. Acute low back pain: systematic review of its prognosis. BMJ. 2003 Aug 9;327(7410):323.   
 
 7.  Kelsey JL, White AA 3d.  Epidemiology and impact of low-back pain. Spine 1980 Mar-Apr;5(2):133-42. 
 
7b. Andersson GBJ. Epidemiological features of chronic low-back pain. Lancet. 1999;354:581-585. 
 
 8.  Nachemson AL.  Newest knowledge of low back pain.  A critical look.  Clin Orthop 1992;279:8-20.  
 
8a. Von Korff M, Saunders K. The course of back pain in primary care. Spine. 1996;21:2833-2839. 
8b. Hestbaek L, Leboeuf-Yde C, Manniche C. Low back pain: what is the long-term course? A review of studies of general patient populations. Eur Spine J. 2003;12:149-165. 
 
8c. Ricci JA, Stewart WF, Chee E, Leotta C, Foley K, Hochberg MC. Back pain exacerbations and lost productive time costs in United States workers. Spine. 2006 Dec 15;31(26):3052-60.  
 
8d. Stewart WF, Ricci JA, Chee E, Morganstein D, Lipton R. Lost productive time and cost due to common pain conditions in the US workforce. JAMA. 2003 Nov 12;290(18):2443-54. 
 
8e. Giesecke T, Gracely RH, Grant MA, Nachemson A, Petzke F, Williams DA, Clauw DJ. Evidence of augmented central pain processing in idiopathic chronic low back pain. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Feb;50(2):613-23. 
 
8f. Wager TD, Rilling JK, Smith EE, Sokolik A, Casey KL, Davidson RJ, Kosslyn SM, Rose RM, Cohen JD.  Placebo-induced changes in FMRI in the anticipation and experience of pain. Science. 2004 Feb 20;303(5661):1162-7. 
 
8g. Onda  A, Murata Y, Rydevik B, Larsson K, Kikuchi S, Olmarker K. Nerve growth factor content in dorsal root ganglion as related to changes in pain behavior in a rat model of experimental lumbar disc herniation. Spine.2005 Jan 15;30(2):188-93. 
 
8h. Peng B, Wu W, Hou S, Li P, Zhang C, Yang Y. The pathogenesis of discogenic low back pain. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005 Jan;87(1):62-7. 
 
 9.  Deyo RA, Cherkin D, Conrad D, Volinn E.  Cost, controversy, crisis: low back pain and the health of the public.  Annu Rev Public Health 1991;12:141-56.  
 
9a.  Lurie JD, Birkmeyer NJ, Weinstein JN. Rates of advanced spinal imaging and spine surgery. Spine. 2003 Mar 15;28(6):616-20.  
 
10.  Keller RB, Soule DN,  JE, Hanley DF.  Dealing with geographic variations in the use of hospitals: The experience of the Maine medical assessment foundation orthopaedic study group.  J Bone Joint Surg 1990 Oct;72A(9):1286-93. 
 
11.  Volinn E, Mayer J, Diehr P, Van Koevering D, Connell FA, Loeser JD. Small area analysis of surgery for low-back pain. Spine 1992;17(5):575-81.  
 
12.  Bigos SJ, Battié‚ MC.  Acute care to prevent back disability.  Ten years of progress.  Clin Orthop 1987 Aug;(221):121-30.  
 
13.  Waddell G.  A new clinical model for the treatment of low-back pain. Spine 1987 Sep;12(7):632-44.  
 
    13a: Gaines WG Jr, Hegmann KT. Effectiveness of Waddell's nonorganic signs in predicting a delayed return to regular work in patients experiencing acute occupational low back pain. Spine 1999 Feb 15;24(4):396-400; discussion 401 
 
14.  Goertz MN.  Prognostic indicators for acute low-back pain.  Spine 1990 Dec;15(12):1307-10.  
 
15.  Von Korff M, Deyo RA, Cherkin D, Barlow W.  Back pain in primary care: outcomes at 1 year.  Spine 1993 Jun;18(7):855-62.  
 
16.  Kelsey JL.  Idiopathic low back pain: magnitude of the problem.  In: White AA; Gordon SL, editors.  American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Symposium on idiopathic low back pain.  St. Louis, Toronto, London: C.V.  Mosby Company; 1982.  p. 5-8. 
 
17.  Field MJ, Lohr KN, editors.  Guidelines for clinical practice: from development to use.  Washington,D.C.: National Academy Press; 1992. 426 p. 
 
  17a. Shekelle PG, Ortiz E, Rhodes S, Morton SC, Eccles MP, Grimshaw JM, Woolf SH. Validity of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality clinical practice guidelines: how quickly do guidelines become outdated? JAMA. 2001 Sep 26;286(12):1461-7. 
 
17b. Koes B, van Tulder M, Ostelo R, Kim Burton A, Waddell G. Clinical guidelines for the management of low back pain in primary care: an international comparison. Spine. 2001;26(22):2504-13, discussion 2513-4. 
 
  17c van Tulder MW, Tuut M, Pennick V, Bombardier C, Assendelft W. Quality of Primary Care Guidelines for Acute Low Back Pain Spine 29(17):E357-E362, 2004 
 
17d van Tulder MW, Koes B, Seitsalo S, Malmivaara A. Outcome of invasive treatment modalities on back pain and sciatica: an evidence-based review. Eur Spine J. 2006 Jan;15 Suppl 1:S82-92. Epub 2005 Dec 1. 
 
18.  Woolf SH.  AHCPR interim manual for clinical practice guideline development.  U.S.  Department of Health and Human Services; 1991 May.  AHCPR Pub. No. 91-0018. 
 
19.  Quebec Task Force on Spinal Disorders.  Scientific approach to the assessment and management of activity-related spinal disorders.  A monograph for clinicians.  Report of the Quebec Task Force on Spinal Disorders. Spine 1987;12(7S):S1-S59. 
 
20.  Aejmelaeus R, Hiltunen H, Härkönen M, Silfverhuth M, Vähä-Tahlo T, Tunturi T.  Myelographic versus clinical diagnostics in lumbar disc disease.  Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1984;103(1):18-25. 
 
21.  Aiello I, Serra G, Migliore A, Tugnoli V, Roccella P, Cristofori MC, Manca M.  Diagnostic use of H-reflex from vastus medialis muscle. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 1983;23:159-66. 
 
22.  Bosacco SJ, Berman AT, Garbarino JL, Teplick JG, Peyster R.  A comparison of CT scanning and myelography in the diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation.  Clin Orthop 1984 Nov;(190):124-8. 
 
23.  Cats-Baril WL, Frymoyer JW.  Identifying patients at risk of becoming disabled because of low-back pain.  The Vermont Rehabilitation Engineering Center predictive model.  Spine 1991 Jun;16(6):605-7. 
 
24.  Charnley J.  Orthopaedic signs in the diagnosis of disc protrusion with special reference to the straight-leg-raising test.  Lancet 1951 Jan 27;1:186-92. 
 
25.  Christodoulides AN.  Ipsilateral sciatica on femoral nerve stretch test is pathognomonic of an L4-5 disc protrusion.  J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1989 Jan;71(1):88-9. 
 
26.  Deyo RA, Diehl AK.  Cancer as a cause of back pain: frequency, clinical presentation, and diagnostic strategies.  J Gen Intern Med 1988 May-Jun;3(3):230-8. 
 
27.  Giles LGF, Taylor JR.  Low-back pain associated with leg length inequality.  Spine 1981;6:510-21. 
 
28.  Grundy PF, Roberts CJ.  Does unequal leg length cause back pain?  A case-control study.  Lancet 1984 Aug 4;2(8397):256-8. 
 
29.  Gunn CC, Milbrandt WE, Little AS, Mason KE.  Dry needling of muscle motor points for chronic low-back pain.  A randomized clinical trial with long-term follow-up.  Spine 1980 May/Jun;5(3):279-91. 
 
30.  Herron LD, Turner J.  Patient selection for lumbar laminectomy and discectomy with a revised objective rating system.  Clin Orthop 1985 Oct;199:145-52. 
 
    30a  Herron LD, Turner JA, Novell LA, Kreif SL. Patient selection for lumbar discectomy with a revised objective rating system. Clin Orthop 1996 Apr;(325):148-55 
 
31.  Hudgins WR.  The crossed straight leg raising test: a diagnostic sign of herniated disc.  J Occup Med 1979 Jun;21(6):407-8.  
 
32.  Jensen OH.  The level-diagnosis of a lower lumbar disc herniation the value of sensibility and motor testing.  Clin Rheumatol 1987 Dec;6(4):564-9. 
 
33.  Jensen OH, Schmidt-Olsen S.  A new functional test in the diagnostic evaluation of neurogenic intermittent claudication.  Clin Rheumatol89 Sep;8(3):363-7. 
 
34.  Kerr RSC, Cadoux-Hudson TA, Adams CBT.  The value of accurate clinical assessment in the surgical management of the lumbar disc protrusion.  J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988 Feb;51(2):169-73. 
 
35.  Kortelainen P, Puranen J, Koivisto E, Lähde S.  Symptoms and signs of sciatica and their relation to the localization of the lumbar disc herniation.  Spine 1985 Jan-Feb;10(1):88-92. 
 
36.  Kosteljanetz M, Bang F, Schmidt-Olsen S.  The clinical significance of straight-leg raising (LasŠgue's sign) in the diagnosis of prolapsed lumbar disc.  Interobserver variation and correlation with surgical finding.  Spine 1988 Apr;13(4):393-5. 
 
37.  Kosteljanetz M, Espersen JO, Halaburt H, Miletic T.  Predictive value of clinical and surgical findings in patients with lumbago-sciatica. A prospective study (Part I).  Acta Neurochir (Wien)1984;73(1-2):67-76. 
 
38.  Lacroix JM, Powell J, Lloyd GJ, Doxey NC, Mitson GL, Aldam CF.   Low-back pain.  Factors of value in predicting outcome.  Spine 1990 Jun;15(6):495-9. 
 
39.  McNeill TW, Sinkora G, Leavitt F.  Psychologic classification of low-back pain patients: a prognostic tool.  Spine 1986 Nov;11(9): 955-9. 
 
40.  Morris EW, Di Paola M, Vallance R, Waddell G.  Diagnosis and decision making in lumbar disc prolapse and nerve entrapment.  Spine 1986 Jun;11(5):436-9. 
 
41.  Murphy KA, Cornish RD.  Prediction of chronicity in acute low back pain.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1984 Jun;65(6):334-7. 
 
42. Nehemkis AM, Carver DW, Evanski PM.  The predictive utility of the orthopedic examination in identifying the low back pain patient with hysterical personality features.  Clin Orthop 1979 Nov-Dec;(145):158-62. 
 
43.  Nykvist F, Hurme M, Alaranta H, Miettinen ML.  Social factors and outcome in a five-year follow-up study of 276 patients with sciatica. Scand J Rehabil Med 1991;23(1):19-26. 
 
44.  Rae PS, Waddell G, Venner RM.  A simple technique for measuring lumbar spinal flexion.  Its use in orthopaedic practice.  J R Coll Surg Edinb 1984 Sep;29(5):281-4. 
 
45.  Ransford AO,  D, Mooney V.  The pain drawing as an aid to the psychologic evaluation of patients with low-back pain.  Spine 1976 Jun;1(2):127-34. 
 
46.  Roland MO, Morrell DC, Morris RW.  Can general practitioners predict the outcome of episodes of back pain?  Br Med J [Clin Res] 1983 Feb 12;286(6364):523-5. 
 
47.  Xin SQ, Zhang QZ, Fan DH.  Significance of the straight-leg-raising test in the diagnosis and clinical evaluation of lower lumbar intervertebral-disc protrusion.  J Bone Joint Surg 1987 Apr;69A(4): 517-22. 
 
48.  Souka A, Alaranta H, Tallroth K, Heliövaara M.  Leg-length inequality in people of working age.  The association between mild nequality and low-back pain is questionable.  Spine 1991 Apr;16(4):429-31. 
 
49.  Spengler DM, Freeman CW.  Patient selection for lumbar discectomy. An objective approach.  Spine 1979 Mar-Apr;4(2):129-34. 
 
50.  Spengler DM, Ouellette EA, Battié‚ M, Zeh J.  Elective discectomy for herniation of a lumbar disc.  Additional experience with an objective method.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1990 Feb;72(2):230-7. 
 
- 50a  Carragee EJ, Kim DH., A prospective analysis of magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation. Correlation of outcomes with disc fragment and canal morphology. Spine 1997 Jul 15;22(14):1650-60   
 
- 50b  Schade V, Semmer N, Main CJ, Hora J, Boos N, The impact of clinical, morphological,  psychosocial and work-related factors on the outcome of lumbar discectomy. Pain 1999 Mar;80(1-2):239-49    
 
- 50c  Boos N, Rieder R, Schade V, Spratt KF, Semmer N, Aebi M. 1995 Volvo Award in clinical  sciences. The diagnostic accuracy   of magnetic resonance imaging, work perception, and psychosocial factors in identifying symptomatic disc herniations. spine 1995 Dec 15;20(24):2613-25  
 
-50d  Hansson TH, Hansson EK. The effects of common medical interventions on pain,  back function, and work resumption in   patients with chronic low back pain: A prospective 2-year cohort study in six countries. Spine. 2000 Dec 1;25(23):3055-64] 
 
-63  Spangfort, EV. The lumbar disc herniation. A computer-aided analysis of 2,504 operations. Acta Orthop. Scand. Suppl. 142,:1-95, 1972. 
 
51.  Takata K, Inoue SI, Takahashi K, Ohtsuka Y.  Swelling of the cauda equina in patients who have herniation of a lumbar disc.  A possible athogenesis of sciatica.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1988 Mar;70(3):361-8. 
 
52.  Udén A, Landin LA.  Pain drawing and myelography in sciatic pain. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1987 Mar;216:124-30. 
 
53.  Von Baeyer CL, Bergstrom KJ, Brodwin MG, Brodwin SK.  Invalid use of pain drawings in psychological screening of back pain patients.  Pain 1983 May;16(1):103-7. 
 
54.  Deyo RA, Rainville J, Kent DL.  What can the history and physical examination tell us about low back pain?  JAMA 1992 Aug 12;268(6):760-5. 
54a. van den Hoogen HM, Koes BW, van Eijk JT, Bouter LM. On the accuracy of history, physical examination, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in diagnosing low back pain in general practice. A criteria-based review of the literature. Spine. 1995;20(3):318-27.  
54b. Katz JN, Dalgas M, Stucki G, et al. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: diagnostic value of the history and physical examination. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 1995;38(9):1236-1241.   
54c. Vroomen PC, de Krom MC, Knottnerus JA. Diagnostic value of history and physical examination in patients suspected of sciatica due to disc herniation: a systematic review. J Neurol. 1999;246:899-906.   
54d. Devillé W, van der Windt D, Dzaferagic A, Bezemer P, Bouter L. The test of Lasegue: systematic review of the accuracy of diagnosing herniated discs. Spine. 2000;25(9):1140-7.    
54e. de Graaf I. Diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis. A systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Spine. 2006;31(10):1168-1176.   
 
55.  Waddell G, Main CJ, Morris EW, Venner RM, Rae PS, Sharmy SH, GallowayH.  Normality and reliability in the clinical assessment of backache. Br Med J [Clin Res] 1982 May 22;284(6328):1519-23. 
 
56.  Aronson HA, Dunsmore RH.  Herniated upper lumbar discs.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1963 Mar;45:311-7 
 
57.  Bigos SJ, Battié‚ MC, Fisher LD.  Methodology for evaluating predictive factors for the report of back injury.  Spine 1991 Jun;16(6):669-70. 
 
58.  Deyo RA, Diehl AK.  Psychosocial predictors of disability in patients with low back pain.  J Rheumatol 1988 Oct;15(10):1557-64. 
 
58a Burton AK, Tillotson KM, Main CJ, Hollis S. Psychosocial predictors of outcome in acute and subacute low back trouble. Spine 1995;20:722-8. 
 
58b Burton AK, Erg E. Spine update: Back injury and work loss: Biomechanical and psychosocial influences. Spine 1997;22:2575-80.***  
 
58c Boos N, Semmer N, Elfering A, et al. Natural history of individuals with asymptomatic disc abnormalities in magnetic  resonance imaging: predictors of low back pain-related medical consultation and work incapacity. Spine 2000;25:1484-92. 
 
58d  Carragee EJ. Psychological and functional profiles in select subjects with low back pain. Spine J 2001;1:198-204. 
 
58e Cairns MC, Foster NE, Wright CC, Pennington D. Level of distress in a recurrent low back pain population referred for physical therapy. Spine 2003;28:953-9.     
 
58f Cassidy JD, Carroll L, Cote P, Berglund A, Nygren A. Low back pain after traffic collisions: a population-based cohort study. Spine 2003;28:1002-9. 
 
58g  Hurwitz EL, Morgenstern H, Yu F.Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of low-back pain and related disability with psychological distress among patients enrolled in the UCLA Low-Back Pain Study. J Clin Epidemiol 2003;56:463-71. 
 
59.  Deyo RA, Tsui-Wu YJ.  Descriptive epidemiology of low-back pain and its related medical care in the United States.  Spine 1987 Apr;12(3):264-8. 
 
60.  Gran JT.  An epidemiological survey of the signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis.  Clin Rheumatol 1985 Jun;4(2):161-9. 
 
60a. Calin A, Fries JF. Striking prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis in "healthy" W27 positive males and females. A controlled study. N. Engl. J. Med. 293:825, 1975 
 
60b. Gran JT, Husby G. The epidemiology of ankylosing spondylitis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1993 Apr;22(5):319-34 
 
60c. Rudwaleit M, Khan M. The challenge of diagnosis and classification in early ankylosing spondylitis: Do we need new criteria? Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2005;52(4):1000-1008.  
60d. Rudwaleit M, Metter A, Listing J, Sieper J, Braun J. Inflammatory back pain in ankylosing spondylitis. A reassessment of the clincial histroy for application as classification and diagnostic criteria. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2006;54:569-578. 
 
61.  Hakelius A, Hindmarsh J.  The comparative reliability of preoperative diagnostic methods in lumbar disc surgery.  Acta Orthop Scand 1972;43:234-8. 
 
62.  Lowery WD, Horn TJ, Boden SD, Wiesel SW.  Impairment evaluation based on spinal range of motion in normal subjects.  J Spinal Disorders 1992;5(4):398-402. 
 
63.  Spangfort EV.  The lumbar disc herniation.  Acta Orth Scand (Suppl) 1972;142:1-95. 
 
64.  Waldvogel FA, Vasey H.  Osteomyelitis: the past decade. N Engl J Med 1980 Aug 14;303(7):360-70. 
 
65.  Weber H. Lumbar disc disc herniation.  A prospective study of prognostic factors including a controlled trial.  Part I.  J Oslo City Hosp 1978;28:33-64. 
 
    65a  Weber H.  Lumbar herniation. A controlled, prospective study with ten years of observation. Spine 1983 Mar;8(2):131-40 
 
65b Weinstein JN, Lurie JD.Tosteson TD, Lurie JD, Tosteson AN, Hanscom B, Skinner JS, Abdu WA, Hilibrand AS, Boden SD, Deyo RA.Surgical vs nonoperative treatment for lumbar disk herniation: the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT): a randomized trial.JAMA. 2006 Nov 22;296(20):2441-50. 
 
65c Peul WC, van den Hout WB, Brand R, Thomeer RTWM, Koes, BW. Prolonged conservative care versus early surgery in patients with sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation: two year results of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008 Jun 14;336(7657):1355-8. 
 
65d van der Hout WB, Peul WC, Koes, BW, Brand R, Thomeer RTWM. Prolonged conservative care versus early surgery in patients with sciatica from lumbar disc herniation: cost utility analysis alongside a randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008 Jun 14;336(7657):1351-4.  
 
66.  Turner JA, Ersek M, Herron L, Deyo R.  Surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis.  Attempted meta-analysis of the literature.  Spine 1992 Jan;17(1):1-8. 
 
67.  Jones SL, Jones PK, Katz J.  Compliance for low-back pain patients in the emergency department.  A randomized trial.  Spine 1988;13(5): 553-6. 
 
68.  Roland M, Dixon M.  Randomized controlled trial of an educational booklet for patients presenting with back pain in general practice. J R Coll Gen Pract 1989 Jun;39(323):244-6. 
 
69.  Bass MJ, Buck C, Turner L, Dickie G, Pratt G, Robinson HC.  The physician's actions and the outcome of illness in family practice.  J Fam Pract 1986 Jul;23(1):43-7. 
 
70.  Deyo RA, Diehl AK.  Patient satisfaction with medical care for low-back pain.  Spine 1986 Jan-Feb;11(1):28-30. 
 
71.  Thomas KB.  General practice consultations: is there any point in being positive?  Br Med J [Clin Res] 1987 May 9;294:1200-2. 
 
71a Goldstein MS, Morgenstern H, Hurwitz EL, Yu F. The impact of treatment confidence on pain and related disability among patients with low-back pain: results from the University of California, Los Angeles,low-back pain study. Spine J 2002;2:391-9. 
 
72.  Bergquist-Ullman M, Larsson U.  Acute low back pain in industry.  A controlled prospective study with special reference to therapy and confounding factors.  Acta Orthop Scand 1977;(170):1-117. 
 
73.  Berwick DM, Budman S, Feldstein M.  No clinical effect of back schools in an HMO.  A randomized prospective trial.  Spine 1989,Mar;14(3):338-44. 
 
74.  Donchin M, Woolf O, Kaplan L, Floman Y.  Secondary prevention of low- back pain.  A clinical trial.  Spine 1990 Dec;15(12):1317-20. 
 
74 a.  Lonn JH, Glomsrod B, Soukup MG, Bo K, Larsen S. Active back school: prophylactic management for low back pain. A randomized, controlled, 1-year follow-up study.Spine. 1999 May 1;24(9):865-71.  
 
74 b.  Soukup MG, Glomsrod B, Lonn JH, Bo K, Larsen S. The effect of a Mensendieck exercise program as secondary prophylaxis for recurrent low back pain. A randomized, controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Spine. 1999 Aug 1;24(15):1585-91; discussion 1592.   
 
74 c.  Soukup MG, Lonn J, Glomsrod B, Bo K, Larsen S.  Exercises and education as secondary prevention for recurrent low back pain. Physiother Res Int. 2001;6(1):27-39.   
 
74 d.  Alexandre NM, de Moraes MA, Correa Filho HR, Jorge SA. Evaluation of a program to reduce back pain in nursing personnel. Rev Saude Publica. 2001 Aug;35(4):356-61. 
 
74 e.  Larsen K, Weidick F, Leboeuf-Yde C.  Can passive prone extensions of the back prevent back problems? A randomized, controlled intervention trial of 314 military conscripts. Spine. 2002 Dec 15;27(24):2747-52.   
 
74 f.  Maul I, Laubli T, Oliveri M, Krueger H. Long-term effects of supervised physical training in secondary prevention of low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2005 Aug;14(6):599-611.   
 
74 g.  Suni J, Rinne M, Natri A, Statistisian MP, Parkkari J, Alaranta H. Control of the lumbar neutral zone decreases low back pain and improves self-evaluated work ability: a 12-month randomized controlled study. Spine. 2006 Aug 15;31(18):E611-20.  
 
75.  Evans C, Gilbert JR, Taylor W, Hildebrand A.  A randomized controlled trial of flexion exercises, education, and bed rest for patients with acute low back pain.  Physiotherapy Can 1987 Mar-Apr;39(2):96-101. 
 
76.  Hurri H.  The Swedish back school in chronic low back pain.  Part I Benefits.  Scand J Rehabil Med 1989;21(1):33-40. 
 
77.  Hurri H.  The Swedish back school in chronic low back pain.  Part II Factors predicting the outcome.  Scand J Rehabil Med 1989;21(1):41-4. 
 
78.  Julkunen J, Hurri H, Kankainen J.  Psychological factors in the treatment of chronic low back pain.  Follow-up study of a back school intervention.  Psychother Psychosom 1988;50(4):173-81. 
 
79.  Keijsers JFEM, Groenman NH, Gerards FM, van Oudheusden E, Steenbakkers M.  A back school in The Netherlands: evaluating the results.  Patient Educ Couns 1989 Aug;14(1):31-44. 
 
80.  Keijsers JF, Steenbakkers MW, Gerards FM, Meertens RM.  The efficacy of the back school: An analysis of the literature.  Arthr Care Res 1990 Dec;3(4):210-15. 
 
81.  Klaber Moffett JA, Chase SM, Portek I, Ennis JR.  A controlled, prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of a back school in the relief of chronic low back pain.  Spine 1986 Mar;11(2):120-2. 
 
82.  Lindequist S, Lundberg B, Wikmark R, Bergstad B, Lööf G, Ottermark AC.  Information and regime at low back pain.  Scand J Rehabil Med 1984;16(3):113-6. 
 
83.  Lindström I, Ohlund C, Eek C, Wallin L, Peterson L, Fordyce WE, Nachemson AL.  The effect of graded activity on patients with subacute low back pain: a randomized prospective clinical study with an operant-conditioning behavioral approach.  Phys Ther 1992 Apr;72(4):279-93. 
 
84.  Morrison GEC, Chase W, Young V, Roberts WL.  Back pain: treatment an prevention in a community hospital.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1988 Aug;69(8):605-9. 
 
85.  Postacchini F, Facchini M, Palieri P.  Efficacy of various forms of conservative treatment in low back pain.  A comparative study Neuro-orthopedics 1988;6(1):28-35. 
 
86.  Stankovic R, Johnell O.  Conservative treatment of acute low-back pain.  A prospective randomized trial: McKenzie method of treatment versus patient education in "mini back school" [see comments].  Spine 1990 Feb;15(2):120-3. 
 
87.  Keijsers JFEM, Bouter LM, Meertens RM.  Validity and comparability of studies on the effects of back schools.  Physiother Theory Pract 1991;7(3):177-84. 
 
88.  Linton SJ, Kamwendo K.  Low back schools.  A critical review.  Phys Ther 1987 Sep;67(9):1375-83. 
 
89.  Lankhorst GJ, Van de Stadt RJ, Vogelaar TW, Van der Korst JK, Prevo AJ.  The effect of the Swedish Back School in chronic idiopathic low back pain.  A prospective controlled study.  Scand J Rehabil Med 1983;15(3):141-5. 
 
90.  Amlie E, Weber H, Holme I.  Treatment of acute low-back pain with piroxicam: results of a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.  Spine 1987 Jun;12(5):473-6. 
 
91.  Basmajian JV.  Acute back pain and spasm.  A controlled multicenter trial of combined analgesic and antispasm agents.  Spine 1989 Apr;14(4):438-9. 
 
92.  Berry H, Bloom B, Hamilton EBD, Swinson DR.  Naproxen sodium, diflunisal, and placebo in the treatment of chronic back pain.  Ann Rheum Dis 1982;41:129-132. 
 
93.  Brooks PM, Day RO.  Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs - differences and similarities.  N Engl J Med 1991 Jun 13;324:1716-25. 
 
94.  Cooper SA, Engel J, Ladove M, Rauch D, Precheur H, Rosenheck A.  A evaluation of oxycodone and acetaminophen in the treatment of postoperative dental pain.  Clin Pharmacol Ther 1979;25(2):219. 
 
95.  Fowler PD.  Aspirin, paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammator drugs: A comparative review of side effects.  Med Toxicol 1987;2:338-66. 
 
96.  Gall EP, Caperton EM, McComb JE, Messner R, Multz CV, O'Hanlan M, Willkens RF.  Clinical comparison of ibuprofen, fenoprofen calcium, naproxen and tolmetin sodium in rheumatoid arthritis.  J Rheumatol 1982;9(3):402-7. 
 
97.  Hickey RFJ.  Chronic low back pain: a comparison of diflunisal with paracetamol.  N Z Med J 1982;95:312-4. 
 
98.  Hopkinson JH, Bartlett FH, Steffens AO, McGlumphy TH, Macht EL, Smith M.  Acetaminophen versus propoxyphene hydrochloride for relief of pain in episiotomy patients.  J Clin Pharm 1973;13:251-63. 
 
99.  Jiranek GC, Kimmey MB, Saunders DR, Willson RA, Shanahan W, Silverstein FE.  Misoprostol reduces gastroduodenal injury from one week of aspirin: an endoscopic study.  Gastroenterology 1989;96:656-61. 
 
100.  Lanza F, Peace K, Gustitus L, Rack MF, Dickson B.  A blinded endoscopic comparative study of misoprostol versus sucralfate and placebo in the prevention of aspirin-induced gastric and duodenal ulceration.  Am J Gastroenterol 1988;83(2):143. 
 
101.  Scott DL, Roden S, Marshall T, Kendall MJ.  Variations in responses to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.  Br J Clin Pharmacol 1982;14:691-4. 
 
102.  Wallenstein SL, Houde RW.  Clinical comparison of the analgesic effectiveness of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, salicylamide and aspirin [abstract].  Fed Proc 1954;13:414. 
 
103.  Wasner C, Britton MC, Kraines G, K ye RL, Bobrove AM, Fries JF.  Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.  JAMA 1981;246:2168-72. 
 
104.  Arbus L, Fajadet B, Aubert D, Morre M, Goldberger E.  Activity of tetrazepam (Myolastan (R)) in low back pain.  A double-blind trial v. placebo.  Clin Trials J 1990;27(4):258-67. 
 
105.  Baratta RR.  A double-blind study of cyclobenzaprine and placebo in the treatment of acute musculoskeletal conditions of the low back. Curr Ther Res 1982 Nov;32(5):646-52. 
 
106.  Borenstein DG, Lacks S, Wiesel SW.  Cyclobenzaprine and naproxen versus naproxen alone in the treatment of acute low back pain and muscle spasm.  Clin Ther 1990 Mar-Apr;12(2):125-31. 
 
106a van Tulder MW, Touray T, Furlan AD,Solway S, Bouter LM. Muscle relaxants for non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;2:CD004252. 
 
107.  Boyles WF, Glassman JM, Soyka JP.  Management of acute usculoskeletal conditions: thoracolumbar strain or sprain.  A double-blind evaluation comparing the efficacy and safety of carisoprodol with diazepam.  Today's Ther Trends 1983;1(1):1-16. 
 
108.  Casale R.  Acute low back pain.  Symptomatic treatment with a muscle relaxant drug.  Clin J Pain 1988;4(2):81-8. 
 
109.  Dapas F, Hartman SF, Martinez L, Northrup BE, Nussdorf RT, Silberman HM, Gross H.  Baclofen for the treatment of acute low-back syndrome. A double-blind comparison with placebo.  Spine 1985 May;10(4):345-9. 
 
110.  Gold RH.  Orphenadrine citrate: sedative or muscle relaxant?  Clin Ther 1978;1(6):451-3. 
 
111.  Hindle TH 3d.  Comparison of carisoprodol, butabarbital, and placebo in treatment of the low back syndrome.  Calif Med 1972 Aug;117(2):7-11. 
 
112.  Hingorani K.  Diazepam in backache: a double-blind controlled trial. Ann Phys Med 1965;8:303-6. 
 
113.  Klinger NM, Wilson RR, Kanniainen CM, Wagenknecht KA, Re ON, Gold RH. Intravenous orphenadrine for the treatment of lumbar paravertebral muscle strain.  Curr Ther Res 1988;43(2):247-54. 
 
114.  Rollings HE, Glassman JM, Soyka JP.  Management of acute musculoskeletal conditions - thoracolumbar strain or sprain: a double-blind evaluation comparing the efficacy and safety of carisoprodol with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride.  Curr Ther Res 1983 Dec;34(6):917-28. 
 
115.  Brown FL Jr, Bodison S, Dixon J, Davis W, Nowoslawski J.  Comparison of diflunisal and acetaminophen with codeine in the treatment of initial or recurrent acute low back strain.  Clin Ther 1986;9 Suppl C:52-8. 
 
116.  Muncie HL Jr, King DE, DeForge B.  Treatment of mild to moderate pain of acute soft tissue injury: diflunisal vs acetaminophen with codeine.  J Fam Pract 1986 Aug;23(2):125-7. 
 
117.  Wiesel SW, Cuckler JM, Deluca F, Jones F, Zeide MS, Rothman RH. Acute low-back pain: an objective analysis of conservative therapy. Spine 1980 Jul/Aug;5(4):324-30. 
 
118.  Heishman SJ, Stitzer ML, Bigelow GE, Liebson IA.  Acute opioidphysical dependence in humans: effect of varying the morphine-naloxone interval.  J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1989 Aug;250(2):485-91. 
 
119.  Haimovic IC, Beresford HR.  Dexamethasone is not superior to placebo for treating lumbosacral radicular pain.  Neurology 1986 Dec;36(12): 1593-4. 
 
120.  Felson DT, Anderson JJ.  Across-study evaluation of association between steroid dose and bolus steroids and avascular neurosis of bone.  Lancet 1987 Apr 18;1(8538):902-6. 
 
121.  Truhan AP, Ahmed AR.  Corticosteroids: a review with emphasis on complications of prolonged systemic therapy.  Ann Allergy 1989 May;62:375-90. 
 
122.  Meek JB, Giudice VW, McFadden JW, Key JD.  Colchicine confirmed as highly effective in disk disorders.  Final results of a double-blind study.  J Neuro & Orthop Med & Surg 1985 Oct;6(3):211-8. 
 
123.  Schnebel BE, Simmons JW.  The use of oral colchicine for low-back pain.  A double-blind study.  Spine 1988 Mar;13(3):354-7. 
 
124.  Simmons JW, Harris WP, Koulisis CW, Kimmich SJ.  Intravenous colchicine for low-back pain: a double-blind study.  Spine 1990 Jul;15(7):716-7. 
 
125.  Alcoff J, Jones E, Rust P, Newman R.  Controlled trial of imipramine for chronic low back pain.  J Fam Pract 1982 May;14(5):841-6. 
 
126.  Goodkin K, Gullion CM, Agras WS.  A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of trazodone hydrochloride in chronic low back pain syndrome.  J Clin Psychopharmacol 1990 Aug;10(4):269-78. 
 
127.  Jenkins DG, Ebbutt AF, Evans CD.  Tofranil in the treatment of low back pain.  J Int Med Res 1976;4(28):28-40. 
 
128.  Blackwell B.  Adverse effects of antidepressant drugs.  Part 1: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclics.  Drugs 1981;21:201-19. 
 
129.  Blackwell B.  Adverse effects of antidepressant drugs.  Part 2: "Second generation" antidepressants and rational decision making in antidepressant therapy.  Drugs 1981;21:272-82. 
 
130.  Brodin H.  Inhibition-facilitation technique for lumbar pain treatment.  Int J Rehabil Res 1984;7(3):328-9. 
 
131.  Coxhead CE, Meade TW, Inskip H, North WRS, Troup JDG.  Multicentre trial of physiotherapy in the management of sciatic symptoms.  Lancet 1981 May 16;8229:1065-8. 
 
132.  Farrell JP, Twomey LT.  Acute low back pain.  Comparison of two conservative treatment approaches.  Med J Aust 1982 Feb 20;1(4):160-4. 
 
133.  Gibson T, Grahame R, Harkness J, Woo P, Blagrave P, Hills R. Controlled comparison of short-wave diathermy treatment with osteopathic treatment in non-specific low back pain.  Lancet 1985 Jun 1;1(8440):1258-61. 
 
134.  Glover JR, Morris JG, Khosla T.  Back pain: a randomized clinical trial of rotational manipulation of the trunk.  Br J Ind Med 1974 Jan;31(1):59-64. 
 
135.  Godfrey CM, Morgan PP, Schatzker J.  A randomized trial of manipulation for low-back pain in a medical setting.  Spine 1984 Apr;9(3):301-4. 
 
136.  Hadler NM, Curtis P, Gillings DB, Stinnett S.  A benefit of spinal manipulation as adjunctive therapy for acute low-back pain: a stratified controlled trial.  Spine 1987 Sep;12(7):703-6. 
 
137.  MacDonald RS, Bell CM.  An open controlled assessment of osteopathic manipulation in nonspecific low-back pain [published erratum appears in Spine 1991 Jan;16(1):104].  Spine 1990 May;15(5):364-70. 
 
138.  Mathews JA, Mills SB, Jenkins VM, Grimes SM, Morkel MJ, Mathews W, Scott CM, Sittampalam Y.  Back pain and sciatica: controlled trial of manipulation, traction, sclerosant and epidural injections.  Br J Rheumatol 1987 Dec;26(6):416-23. 
 
139.  Mathews W, Morkel M, Mathews J.  Manipulation and traction for lumbago and sciatica: physiotherapeutic techniques used in two controlled trials.  Physiother Prac 1988 Dec;4(4):201-6. 
 
140.  Waterworth RF, Hunter IA.  An open study of diflunisal, conservative and manipulative therapy in the management of acute mechanical lo back pain.  N Z Med J 1985 May 22;98(779):372-5. 
 
141.  Anderson R, Meeker WC, Wirick BE, Mootz RD, Kirk DH, Adams A.  A meta-analysis of clinical trials of spinal manipulation.  J Man Physiol Ther 1992 Mar-Apr;15(3):181-94. 
 
142.  Haldeman S, Chapman-Smith D, Petersen DM, editors.  Guidelines for chiropractic quality assurance and practice parameters.  Proceedings of the Mercy Center Consensus Conference.  1993; Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc.;1993. 
 
143.  Jarvis KB, Phillips RB, Morris EK.  Cost per case comparison of bac injury claims of chiropractic versus medical management fo conditions with identical diagnostic codes.  J Occup Med 1991 Aug;33(8):847-52. 
 
144.  Shekelle PG, Adams AH, Chassin MR, Hurwitz EL, Brook RH.  Spinal manipulation for low-back pain.  Ann Intern Med 1992 Oct;117(7):590-8. 
 
145.  Coyer AB, Curwen IHM.  Low back pain treated by manipulation.  A controlled series.  Br Med J 1955 Mar 19;1:705-7. 
 
146.  Edwards BC.  Low back pain and pain resulting from lumbar spine conditions.  Aust J Physiother 1969 Sep;15(3):104-10. 
 
147.  Mandell P, Lipton MH, Bernstein J, Kucera GJ, Kampner JA.  Low back pain.  An historical and contemporary overview of the occupational, medical, and psychosocial issues of chronic back pain.  Thorofare, New Jersey: SLACK, Inc.;1989.  219 p. 
 
148.  Nwuga VCB.  Relative therapeutic efficacy of vertebral manipulation and conventional treatment in back pain management.  Am J Phys Med 1982 Dec;61(6):273-8. 
 
149.  Rasmussen GG.  Manipulation in treatment of low-back pain (a randomized clinical trial).  Man Med 1979;1:8-10. 
 
150.  Klein RG, Eek BC.  Low-energy laser treatment and exercise for chronic low back pain: double-blind controlled trial.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990 Jan;71(1):34-7. 
 
151. Koes BW, Bouter LM, van Mameren H, Essers AHM, Verstegen GMJR, Hofhuizen DM, Houben JP, Knipschild PG.  A blinded randomized clinical trial of manual therapy and physiotherapy for chronic back and neck complaints: Physical outcome measures.  J Man Physiol Ther 1992 Jan;15(1):16-23. 
 
152.  Koes BW, Bouter LM, van Mameren H, Essers AHM, Verstegen GMJR, Hofhuizen DM, Houben JP, Knipschild PG.  The effectiveness of manual therapy, physiotherapy, and treatment by the general practitioner for nonspecific back and neck complaints.  A randomized clinical trial. Spine 1992;17(1):28-35. 
 
153.  Koes BW, Bouter LM, van Mameren H, Essers AHM, Verstegen GM, Hofhuizen DM, Houben JP, Knipschild PG.  Randomised clinical trial of manipulative therapy and physiotherapy for persistent back and neck complaints: results of one year follow up.  Br Med J 1992;304:601-5. 
 
154.  Linton SJ, Bradley LA, Jensen I, Spangfort E, Sundell L.  The secondary prevention of low back pain: a controlled study with follow-up.  Pain 1989 Feb;36(2):197-207. 
 
155.  Manniche C, Hesselsoe G, Bentzen L, Christensen I, Lundberg E. Clinical trial of intensive muscle training for chronic low back pain.  Lancet 1988 Dec 24-31;2(8626-8627):1473-6. 
 
156.  Melzack R, Vetere P, Finch L.  Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain.  A comparison of TENS and massage for pain and range of motion.  Phys Ther 1983 Apr;63(4):489-93. 
 
156 a. French SD, Cameron M, Walker BF, Reggars JW, Esterman AJ. Superficial heat or cold for low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD004750.  
 
157.  Deyo RA, Walsh NE, Martin DC, Schoenfeld LS, Ramamurthy S.   controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and exercise for chronic low back pain [see comments].  N Engl  Med 1990 Jun 7;322(23):1627-34. 
 
158.  Gemignani G, Olivieri I, Ruju G, Pasero G.  Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in ankylosing spondylitis: a double-blind study [letter].  Arthritis Rheum 1991 Jun;34(6):788-9. 
 
159.  Graff-Radford SB, Reeves JL, Baker RL, Chiu D.  Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on myofascial pain and trigger point sensitivity.  Pain 1989;37:1-5. 
 
160.  Hackett GI, Seddon D, Kaminski D.  Electroacupuncture compared with paracetamol for acute low back pain.  Practitioner 1988 Feb 22;232(1443):163-4. 
 
161.  Lehmann TR, Russell DW, Spratt KF.  The impact of patients with nonorganic physical findings on a controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and electroacupuncture.  Spine 1983 Sep;8(6):625-34. 
 
162.  Lehmann TR, Russell DW, Spratt KF, Colby H, Liu YK, Fairchild ML,Christensen S.  Efficacy of electroacupuncture and TENS in the rehabilitation of chronic low back pain patients.  Pain 1986 Sep;26(3):277-90. 
 
163.  Thorsteinsson G, Stonnington HH, Stillwell GK, Elveback LR Transcutaneous electrical stimulation: a double-blind trial of its efficacy for pain.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1977 Jan;58:8-13. 
 
164.  Thorsteinsson G, Stonnington HH, Stillwell GK, Elveback LR.  The placebo effect of transcutaneous electrical stimulation.  Pain 1978;5:31-41. 
 
165.  Basford JR, Smith MA.  Shoe insoles in the workplace.  Orthopedics 1988 Feb;11(2):285-8. 
 
165 a. Larsen K, Weidich F, Leboeuf-Yde C. Can custom-made biomechanic shoe orthoses prevent problems in the back and lower extremities? A randomized, controlled intervention trial of 146 military conscripts. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2002 Jun;25(5):326-31 
 
165 b.  Milgrom C, Finestone A, Lubovsky O, Zin D, Lahad A. A controlled randomized study of the effect of training with orthoses on the incidence of weight bearing induced back pain among infantry recruits. Spine. 2005 Feb 1;30(3):272-5. 
 
166.  Battié‚ MC, Bigos SJ, Fisher LD, Spengler DM, Hansson TH, Nachemson AL, Wortley MD.  The role of spinal flexibility in back pain complaints within industry.  A prospective study.  Spine 1990 Aug;15(8):768-73. 
 
167.  Horal J.  The clinical appearance of low back disorders in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden.  Comparisons of incapacitated probands with matched controls.  Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 1969;118:15-23,68-73. 
 
168.  Hult L.  Cervical, dorsal and lumbar spinal syndromes.  Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 1954;16:7-73. 
 
169.  Reddell CR, Congleton JJ, Huchingson RD, Montgomery JF.  An evaluation of a weightlifting belt and back injury prevention training class for airline baggage handlers.  Applied Ergonomics 992;23(5):319-29. 
 
170.  Walsh NE, Schwartz RK.  The influence of prophylactic orthoses onabdominal strength and low back injury in the workplace [see comments].  Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1990 Oct;69(5):245-50.  [Must read more than abstract: Pre-intervention baseline data differences invalidated comparisons with the control group
 
171.  Million R, Haavik Nilsen K, Jayson MIV, Baker RD.  Evaluation of lo back pain and assessment of lumbar corsets with and without back supports.  Ann Rheum Dis 1981;40:449-54. 
 
    171a. van Poppel MN, Koes BW, van der Ploeg T, Smid T, Bouter LM Lumbar supports and education for the prevention of low back pain in industry: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998 Jun 10;279(22):1789-94 
 
   171b. Wassell JT, Gardner LI, Landsittel DP, Johnston JJ, Johnston JM. A prospective study of back belts for prevention of back pain and injury. JAMA. 2000 Dec 6;284(21):2727-32 
 
   171c. Kraus JF, Schaffer KB, Rice T, Maroosis J, Harper J. A field trial of back belts to reduce the incidence of acute low back injuries in New York City home attendants. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2002 Apr-Jun;8(2):97-104 [Must read more than abstract: Pre-intervention baseline data differences invalidated comparisons with the control group
 
172.  Larsson U, Chöler U, Lidström A, Lind G, Nachemson A, Nilsson B, Roslund J.  Auto-traction for treatment of lumbago-sciatica.  A multicentre controlled investigation.  Acta Orthop Scand 1980 Oct;51(5):791-8. 
 
173.  Mathews JA, Hickling J.  Lumbar traction: a double-blind controlled study for sciatica.  Rheumatol Rehabil 1975;14:222-5. 
 
174.  Pal B, Mangion P, Hossain MA, Diffey BL.  A controlled trial of continuous lumbar traction in the treatment of back pain and sciatica.  Br J Rheumatol 1986 May;25(2):181-3. 
 
175.  Weber H, Ljunggren AE, Walker L.  Traction therapy in patients with herniated lumbar intervertebral discs.  J Oslo City Hosp 1984 Jul-Aug;34(7-8):61-70. 
 
176.  Haskvitz EM, Hanten WP.  Blood pressure response to inversio traction.  Phys Ther 1986 Sep;66(9):1361-4. 
 
177.  Asfour SS, Khalil TM, Waly SM, Goldberg ML, Rosomoff RS, Rosomoff HL Biofeedback in back muscle strengthening.  Spine 1990 Jun;15(6):510-3. 
 
178.  Bush C, Ditto B, Feuerstein M.  A controlled evaluation of paraspinal MG biofeedback in the treatment of chronic low back pain.  Health Psychol 1985;4(4):307-21. 
 
179.  Flor H, Haag G, Turk DC, Koehler H.  Efficacy of EMG biofeedback, pseudotherapy, and conventional medical treatment for chronic rheumatic back pain.  Pain 1983 Sep;17(1):21-31. 
 
180.  Nouwen A.  EMG biofeedback used to reduce standing levels of paraspinal muscle tension in chronic low back pain.  Pain 1983 Dec;17(4):353-60. 
 
181.  Flor H, Haag G, Turk DC.  Long-term efficacy of EMG biofeedback for chronic rheumatic back pain.  Pain 1986 Nov;27(2):195-202. 
 
182.  Stuckey SJ, Jacobs A, Goldfarb J.  EMG biofeedback training, relaxation training, and placebo for the relief of chronic back pain. Percept Mot Skills 1986 Dec;63(3):1023-36. 
 
183.  Bourne IH.  Treatment of chronic back pain.  Comparing corticosteroid-lignocaine injections with lignocaine alone. Practitioner 1984 Mar;228(1389):333-8. 
 
184.  Frost FA, Jessen B, Siggaard-Andersen J.  A control, double-blind comparison of mepivacaine injection versus saline injection for myofascial pain.  Lancet 1980 Mar 8;8167:499-501. 
 
185.  Garvey TA, Marks MR, Wiesel SW.  A prospective, randomized, double-blind evaluation of trigger-point injection therapy for low-back pain.  Spine 1989 Sep;14(9):962-4. 
 
186.  Collée G, Dijkmans BAC, Vandenbroucke JP, Cats A.  Iliac crest pain syndrome in low back pain.  A double blind, randomized study of local injection therapy.  J Rheumatol 1991;18(7):1060-3. 
 
186a  Dechow E, Davies RK, Carr AJ, Thompson PW. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sclerosing injections in patients with chronic low back pain. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999;38:1255-9. 
 
186b  Yelland MJ, Glasziou PP, Bogduk N, Schluter PJ, McKernon M. Prolotherapy injections, saline injections, and exercises for chronic low-back pain: a randomized trial. Spine 2004;29:9-16 
 
186c  Dagenais S, Haldeman S, Wooley JR.  Intraligamentous injection of sclerosing solutions (prolotherapy) for spinal pain: a critical review of the literature. Spine J. 2005 May-Jun;5(3):310-28.  
 
.187.  Ongley MJ, Klein RG, Dorman TA, Eek BC, Hubert LJ.  A new approach to he treatment of chronic low back pain.  Lancet 1987 Jul 18;2(8551):143-6. 
 
188.  Sonne M, Christensen K, Hansen SE, Jensen EM.  Injection of steroids and local anaesthetics as therapy for low-back pain.  Scand J Rheumatol 1985;14(4):343-5. 
 
189.  Sullivan JGB.  The anesthesiologist's approach to back pain.  In: Herkowitz HN, Garfin SR, Balderston RA, Eismont FJ, Bell GR, Wiesel SW, editors.  The Spine.  3rd ed.  Philadelphia: W.B.  Saunders Co.;1992.  p.  1945-61. 
 
190.  Wilkinson HA.  Alternative therapies for the failed back syndrome. In: Frymoyer JW, editor.  The adult spine: principles and practice. New York: Raven Press, Ltd.;1991:2069-91. 
 
191.  Jackson RP.  The facet syndrome.  Myth or reality?  Clin Orthop Rel Res 1992 Jun;279:110-21. 
 
192.  Carette S, Marcoux S, Truchon R, Grondin C, Gagnon J, Allard Y, Latulippe M.  A controlled trial of corticosteroid injections into facet joints for chronic low back pain.  N Engl J Med 1991 Oct 3;325(14):1002-7. 
 
193.  Lilius G, Laasonen EM, Myllynen P, Harilainen A, Grönlund G.  Lumbar facet joint syndrome.  A randomised clinical trial.  J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1989 Aug;71(4):681-4. 
 
194.  Marks RC, Houston T, Thulbourne T.  Facet joint injection and facet nerve block: a randomised comparison in 86 patients with chronic low back pain.  Pain 1992;49:325-8. 
 
195.  Nash TP.  Facet joints--intra-articular steroids or nerve block Pain Clinic 1990;3(2):77-82. 
 
196.  Thomson SJ, Lomax DM, Collett BJ.  Chemical meningism after lumbar facet joint block with local anaesthetic and steroids.  Anaesthesia 1991 Jul;46(7):563-4. 
 
   196a Niemisto L, Kalso E, Malmivaara A, Seitsalo S, Hurri H. Radiofrequency denervation for neck and back pain. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(1):CD004058 
 
196b  van Kleef M, Barendse GA, Kessels A, Voets HM, Weber WE, de Lange S. Randomized trial of radiofrequency lumbar facet denervation for chronic low back pain. Spine 1999;24:1937-42. 
 
196c  Leclaire R, Fortin L, Lambert R, Bergeron YM, Rossignol M. Radiofrequency facet joint denervation in the treatment of low back pain: a placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess efficacy. Spine 2001;26:1411-6. 
 
197.  Warfield CA.  Facet syndrome and the relief of low back pain.  Hosp Pract [Off] 1988 Oct 30;23(10A):41-2,47-8. 
 
198.  Mooney V.  Injection studies.  Role in pain definition.  In: Frymoyer JW, editor.  The adult spine: principles and practice.  New York: Raven Press, Ltd.; 1991.  p. 527-40. 
 
198a Guzman J, Esmail R, Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, Irvin E, Bombardier C. Multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social rehabilitation for chronic low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;1:CD000963. 
 
198b Nelemans PJ, deBie RA, deVet HC, Sturmans F. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic benign low back pain. Spine 2001;26:501-15. 
 
198c Khot A, Bowditch M, Powell J, Sharp D. The use of intradiscal steroid therapy for lumbar spinal discogenic pain: a randomized controlled trial. Spine 2004;29:833-6. 
 
199.  White AH.  Injection techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of low back pain.  Orthop Clin North Am 1983 Jul;14(3):553-67. 
 
200.  Breivik H, Hesla PE, Molnar I, Lind B.  Treatment of chronic low back pain and sciatica: Comparison of caudal epidural injections of bupivacaine and methylprednisolone with bupivacaine followed by saline.  Adv Pain Res Ther 1976;1:927-32. 
 
201.  Bush K, Hillier S.  A controlled study of caudal epidural injections of triamcinolone plus procaine for the management of intractable sciatica.  Spine 1991;16(5):572-5. 
 
202.  Cuckler JM, Bernini PA, Wiesel SW, Booth RE Jr, Rothman RH, Pickens GT.  The use of epidural steroids in the treatment of lumbar radicular pain.  A prospective, randomized, double-blind study.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1985 Jan;67(1):63-6. 
 
203.  Dallas TL, Lin RL, Wu WH, Wolskee P.  Epidural morphine and methylprednisolone for low-back pain.  Anesthesiology 1987 Sep;67(3):408-11. 
 
204.  Dilke TF, Burry HC, Grahame R.  Extradural corticosteroid injection in management of lumbar nerve root compression.  Br Med J 1973 Jun 16;2(867):635-7. 
 
205.  Klenerman L, Greenwood R, Davenport HT, White DC, Peskett S.  Lumbar epidural injections in the treatment of sciatica.  Br J Rheumatol 1984;23(1):35-8. 
 
206.  Ridley MG, Kingsley GH, Gibson T, Grahame R.  Outpatient lumbar epidural corticosteroid injection in the management of sciatica.  Br J Rheumatol 1988;27(4):295-9. 
 
207.  Snoek W, Weber H, Jorgensen B.  Double blind evaluation of extradural methyl prednisolone for herniated lumbar discs.  Acta Orthop Scand 1977;48:635-41. 
 
208.  Kepes ER, Duncalf D.  Treatment of backache with spinal injections of local anesthetics, spinal and systemic steroids.  A review.  Pain 1985 May;22(1):33-47. 
 
209.  Rocco AG, Frank E, Kaul AF, Lipson SJ, Gallo JP.  Epidural steroids, epidural morphine and epidural steroids combined with morphine in the treatment of post-laminectomy syndrome.  Pain 1989 Mar;36(3):297-303. 
 
209a  Smuck M, Fuller BJ, Yoder B, Huerta J. Incidence of simultaneous epidural and vascular injection during lumbosacral transforaminal epidural injections. Spine J. 2007 Jan-Feb;7(1):79-82 
 
210.  Coan RM, Wong G, Ku SL, Chan YC, Wang L, Ozer FT, Coan PL.  The acupuncture treatment of low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.  Am J Chin Med 1980;8(2):181-9. 
 
    210a Nelemans PJ, de Bie RA, de Vet HC, Sturmans F. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic benign low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (2) :CD001824 
 
211.  Edelist G, Gross AE, Langer F.  Treatment of low back pain with acupuncture.  Can Anaesth Soc J 1976 May;23(3):303-6. 
 
212.  Ghia JN, Mao W, Toomey TC, Gregg JM.  Acupuncture and chronic pain mechanisms.  Pain 1976;2:285-99. 
 
213.  Gunn CC, Milbrandt WE.  Tenderness at motor points.  A diagnostic and prognostic aid for low-back injury.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1976 Sep;58(6):815-25. 
 
214.  Mendelson G, Kidson MA, Loh ST, Scott DF, Selwood TS, Kranz H. Acupuncture analgesia for chronic low back pain.  Clin Exp Neurol 1978;15:182-5. 
 
215.  Mendelson G, Selwood TS, Kranz H, Loh TS, Kidson MA, Scott DS. Acupuncture treatment of chronic back pain.  A double-blind placebo-controlled trial.  Am J Med 1983 Jan;74(1):49-55. 
 
216.  ter Riet G, Kleijnen J, Knipschild P.  Acupuncture and chronic pain: a criteria-based meta-analysis.  J Clin Epidemiol 1990;43(11):1191-9. 
 
217.  Kent G, Brondum J, Keenlyside RA, Lafazia LM, Scott HD.  A large outbreak of acupuncture-associated hepatitis B.  Am J Epidemiol 1988;127(3):591-8. 
 
218.  Lee MHM, Liao S, Kottke FJ, Lehmann JF.  Krusen's handbook of physical medicine and rehabilitation.  Philadelphia: Saunders; 1990. Chapter 16, Acupuncture in physiatry. 
 
219.  Willms D.  Possible complications of acupuncture [letter].  The West J Med 1991;154(6):736-7. 
 
220.  Wright R, Kupperman JL, Liebhaber MI.  Bilateral tension pneumothoraces after acupuncture.  West J Med 1991:154(1);102-3. 
 
221.  Chaffin DB.  A biomechanical strength model for use in industry. Appl Ind Hyg 1988 Mar;3(3):79-86. 
 
222.  Damkot DK, Pope MH, Lord J, Frymoyer JW.  The relationship between work history, work environment and low back pain in men.  Spine 1984;9:395-9. 
 
223.  Drury CG.  Influence of restricted space on manual materials handling.  Ergonomics 1985 Jan;28(1):167-75. 
 
224.  Dul J, Hilderbrandt VH.  Ergonomic guidelines for the prevention of low back pain at the workplace.  Ergonomics 1987 Feb;30(2):419-29. 
 
 224a  Lahad A, Malter AD, Berg AO, Deyo RA. The effectiveness of four interventions for the prevention of low back pain. JAMA. 1994 Oct 26;272(16):1286-91. 
 
 224b  Linton SJ, Occupational psychological factors increase the risk for back pain: a systematic review. J Occup Rehabil. 2001 Mar;11(1):53-66. 
 
 224c   Tveito TH, Hysing M, Eriksen HR. Low back pain interventions at the workplace: a systematic literature review. Occup Med (Lond). 2004 Jan;54(1):3-13. 
 
224d  Martimo K, Verbeek J, Karppinen J, Furlan AD, Kuijer P, Viikari-Juntura E, Takala E, Jauhiainen M. Manual material handling advice and assistive devices for preventing and treating back pain in workers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD005958. 
 
225.  Garg A, Moore JS.  Epidemiology of low-back pain in industry.  Occup Med 1992 Oct-Dec;7(4):593-608. 
 
226.  Nachemson AL.  Disc pressure measurements.  Spine 1981 Jan/Feb; 6(1):93-7. 
 
227.  National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).  Work practices guide for manual lifting.  US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH: March 1981, NIOSH Technical Report No. 81-122. 
 
228.  Waters TR, Putz-Anderson V, Garg A, Fine LJ.  Revised NIOSH equation for the design and evaluation of manual lifting tasks.  Ergonomics 1993;36(7):749-76. 
 
     -228a   Waters  TR, Baron SL, Piacitelli LA, Anderson VP, Skov T, Haring-Sweeney M, Wall DK, Fine LJ.Evaluation of the revised NIOSH lifting equation. A cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Spine 1999 Feb 15;24(4):386-94 [MUST READ BEYOND THE ABSTRACT: Note CIs & Odds Ratios for 2nd group in table not on same side of 1, i.e., no significant diff.
 
     -228b  Dempsey PG, Sorock GS, Cotman JP, Ayoub MM, Westfall PH, Maynard W, Fathallah F, O'Brien NO, Field Evaluation of the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation, Proceedings of the IEA 2000/HFES 2000 Congress 
 
    -228c Ross, JF.Risk :Where do real dangers lie? Smithsonian; Nov.,1995:42-53  
 
-228d Fredriksson K, Alfredsson L, Thorbjörnsson CB, Punnett L, Toomingas A, Torgén M, Kilbom A. Risk factors for neck and shoulder disorders: a nested case-control study covering a 24-year period. Am J Ind Med. 2000 Nov;38(5):516-28. [MUST READ BEYOND THE ABSTRACT
 
    -228e Gerdtham U, Johannesson M, A note on the effect of unemployment on mortality. Journal of Health Economics Volume 22, Issue 3 , May 2003, Pages 505-518 
 
 
229.  Deyo RA, Diehl AK, Rosenthal M.  How many days of bed rest for acute low back pain?  A randomized clinical trial.  N Engl J Med 1986 Oct 23;315(17):1064-70. 
 
   229a: Wilkinson MJ. Does 48 hours' bed rest influence the outcome of acute low back pain? Br J Gen Pract 1995 Sep;45(398):481-4 
 
230.  Gilbert JR, Taylor DW, Hildebrand A, Evans C.  Clinical trial of common treatments for low back pain in family practice.  Br Med J [Clin Res] 1985 Sep 21;291(6498):791-4. 
 
231.  Bortz WM.  The disuse syndrome.  West J Med 1984 Nov;141(5):691-4. 
 
232.  Deyo RA.  Non-operative treatment of low back disorders. Differentiating useful from useless therapy.  In: Frymoyer JW, editor.  The adult spine: principles and practice.  New York: Raven Press, Ltd.;1991.  p.  1567-80. 
 
233.  Buswell J.  Low back pain: a comparison of two treatment programmes. N Z J Physiother 1982 Aug;10(2):13-7. 
 
234.  Davies JE, Gibson T, Tester L.  The value of exercises in the treatment of low back pain.  Rheumatol Rehabil 1979;18:243-7. 
 
235.  Donelson R, Grant W, Kamps C, Medcalf R.  Pain response to sagittal end-range spinal motion.  A prospective, randomized, multicentered trial.  Spine 1991 Jun;16(6 Suppl):S206-12. 
 
236.  Gundewall B, Liljeqvist M, Hansson T.  Primary prevention of back symptoms and absence from work.  A prospective randomized study among hospital employees.  Spine 1993;18(5):587-94. 
 
    -236a.   Malmivaara A, Hakkinen U, Aro T, Heinrichs ML, Koskenniemi L, Kuosma E, Lappi S, Paloheimo R, Servo C, Vaaranen V, et al., The treatment of acute low back pain--bed rest, exercises, or ordinary activity? N Engl J Med 1995 Feb 9;332(6):351-5 
 
   -236b.   Indahl A, Haldorsen EH, Holm S, Reikeras O, Ursin H. Five-year follow-up study of a controlled clinical trial using light mobilization and an informative approach to low back pain. Spine 1998 Dec 1;23(23):2625-30 
 
  -236c   Burton AK, Waddell G, Tillotson KM, Summerton N. Information and advice to patients with back pain can have a positive effect. A randomized controlled trial of a novel educational booklet in primary care. Spine 1999 Dec 1;24(23):2484-91  
 
  -236d.   Hagen EM, Eriksen HR, Ursin H. Does early intervention with a light mobilization program reduce long-term sick leave for low back pain? Spine 2000 Aug 1;25(15):1973-6 
 
  -236e. Atcheson SG, Brunner RL, Greenwald EJ, Rivera VG, Cox JC, Bigos SJ. Paying doctors more: use of musculoskeletal specialists and increased physician pay to decrease workers' compensation costs. J Occup Environ Med. 2001 Aug;43(8):672-9. 
 
  -236f.   Buchbinder R, Jolley D, Wyatt M, Effect of Media Campaign on Back Pain Beliefs and Its Potential Influence on Management of Low Back Pain in General Practice SPINE 2001;26:2535-2542 
 
  -236g.   McGuirk B, King W, Govind J, Lowry J, Bogduk N.Safety, efficacy, and cost effectiveness of evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute low back pain in primary care. Spine 2001 Dec 1;26(23):2615-22 
 
- 236h.  Pincus T, Vogel S, Burton AK, Santos R, Field AP.  Fear avoidance and prognosis in back pain: a systematic review and synthesis of current evidence. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Dec;54(12):3999-4010.  
 
237.  Kellett KM, Kellett DA, Nordholm LA.  Effects of an exercise program on sick leave due to back pain.  Phys Ther 1991 Apr;71(4):283-91; discussion 291-3. 
 
238.  Kendall PH, Jenkins JM.  Exercises for backache: a double-blind controlled trial.  Physiotherapy 1968;54:154-7. 
 
239.  Lidström A, Zachrisson M.  Physical therapy on low back pain and sciatica.  An attempt at evaluation.  Scand J Rehab Med 1970;2:37-42. 
 
240.  McCain GA, Bell DA, Mai FM, Halliday PD.  A controlled study of the effects of a supervised cardiovascular fitness training program on the manifestations of primary fibromyalgia.  Arthritis Rheum 1988 Sep;31(9):1135-41. 
 
241.  Reilly K, Lovejoy B, Williams R, Roth H.  Differences between a supervised and independent strength and conditioning program with chronic low back syndromes.  J Occup Med 1989 Jun;31(6):547-50. 
 
242.  Turner JA, Clancy S, McQuade KJ, Cardenas DD.  Effectiveness of behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: a component analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol 1990 Oct;58(5):573-9. 
 
243.  Zylbergold RS, Piper MC.  Lumbar disc disease: comparative analysis of physical therapy treatments.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1981 Apr;62:176-9. 
 
244.  Andersson GBJ.  Posture and compressive spine loading: intradiscal pressures, trunk myoelectric activities, intra-abdominal pressures, and biochemical analyses.  Ergonomics 1985;28(1):91-3. 
 
245.  Andersson GBJ, Örtengren R, Nachemson AL, Elström G, Broman H.  The sitting posture: an electromyographic and discometric study.  Orthop Clin North Am 1975 Jan;6(1):105-20. 
 
246.  Fordyce WE, Brockway JA, Bergman JA, Spengler D.  Acute back pain: a control-group comparison of behavioral vs traditional management methods.  J Behav Med 1986 Apr;9(2):127-40. 
 
247.  Nachemson A.  Towards a better understanding of low-back pain: a review of the mechanics of the lumbar disc.  Rheumatol Rehabil 1975;14:129-43. 
 
248.  Nachemson AL.  The lumbar spine.  An orthopaedic challenge.  Spine 1976 Mar;1(1):59-71. 
 
249.  Nachemson A, Elfström G.  Intravital dynamic pressure measurements in lumbar discs.  A study of common movements, maneuvers and exercises. Scand J Rehabil Med Suppl 1970;1:1-40. 
 
250.  Nordin M, Örtengren R, Andersson GBJ.  Measurements of trunk movements during work.  Spine 1984;9(5):465-9. 
 
251.  Sachs BL, Ahmad SS, LaCroix M, Olimpio D, Heath R, David JA, Scala AD.  Objective assessment for exercise treatment on the B-200 isostation as part of work tolerance rehabilitation.  A random prospective blind evaluation with comparison control population. Spine 1994 Jan 1;19(1):49-52. 
 
252.  Schultz AB, Andersson GBJ.  Analysis of loads on the lumbar spine. Spine 1981 Jan-Feb;6(1):76-82. 
 
253.  Schultz AB, Andersson GBJ, Örtengren R, Haderspeck K, Nachemson A. Loads on the lumbar spine.  Validation of a biomechanical analysis by easurements of intradiscal pressures and myoelectric signals.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1982;64:713-20. 
 
254.  Aiello I, Serra G, Tugnoli V, Cristofori MC, Migliore A, Roccella P, Rosati G.  Electrophysiological findings in patients with lumbar disc prolapse.  Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 1984 May;24(4):313-20. 
 
255.  Arena JG, Sherman RA, Bruno GM, Young TR.  Electromyographic recordings of low back pain subjects and non-pain controls in six different positions: effect of pain levels.  Pain 1991 Apr;45(1):23-8. 
 
256.  Braddom RI, Johnson EW.  Standardization of H-reflex and diagnostic use in S1 radiculopathy.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1974 Apr;55:161-6. 
 
257.  Khatri BO, Baruah J, McQuillen MP.  Correlation of electromyography with computed tomography in evaluation of lower back pain.  Arch Neurol 1984 Jun;41(6):594-7. 
 
258.  Sihvonen T, Partanen J, Hänninen O, Soimakallio S.  Electric behavior of low back muscles during lumbar pelvic rhythm in low back pain patients and healthy controls.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1991 Dec;72:1080-7. 
 
259.  Stolov WC, Slimp JC.  Dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials in lumbar spinal stenosis.  Am Assoc Electromyography and Electrodiagnosis, Am Electroencephalography Soc Joint Symp 1988:17-22. 
 
260.  Young A, Getty J, Jackson A, Kirwan E, Sullivan M, Parry CW. Variations in the pattern of muscle innervation by the L5 and S1 nerve roots.  Spine 1983 Sep;8(6):616-24. 
 
261.  Ahern DK, Follick MJ, Council JR, Laser-Wolston N, Litchman H. Comparison of lumbar paravertebral EMG patterns in chronic low back ain patients and non-patient controls.  Pain 1988 Aug;34(2):153-60. 
 
262.  Esdaile JM, Rosenthall L, Terkeltaub R, Kloiber R.  Prospective evaluation of sacroiliac scintigraphy in chronic inflammatory back pain.  Arthritis Rheum 1980 Sep;23(9):998-1003. 
 
263.  Lowe J, Schachner E, Hirschberg E, Shapiro Y, Libson E.  Significance of bone scintigraphy in symptomatic spondylolysis.  Spine 1984 Sep;9(6):653-5. 
 
264.  Miron SD, Khan MA, Wiesen EJ, Kushner I, Bellon EM.  The value of quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy in detection of sacroiliitis. Clin Rheumatol 1983 Dec;2(4):407-14. 
 
265.  Schütte HE, Park WM.  The diagnostic value of bone scintigraphy in patients with low back pain.  Skeletal Radiol 1983;10(1):1-4. 
 
266.  Whalen JL, Brown ML, McLeod R, Fitzgerald RH Jr.  Limitations of indium leukocyte imaging for the diagnosis of spine infections. Spine 1991 Feb;16(2):193-7. 
 
267.  Mills GH, Davies GK, Getty CJM, Conway J.  The evaluation of liquid crystal thermography in the investigation of nerve root compression due to lumbosacral lateral spinal stenosis.  Spine 1986 Jun;11(5):427-32. 
 
268.  Hoffman RM, Kent DL, Deyo RA.  Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of thermography for lumbar radiculopathy.  A meta-analysis. Spine 1991 Jun;16(6):623-8. 
 
269.  Chafetz N, Wexler CE, Kaiser JA.  Neuromuscular thermography of the lumbar spine with CT correlation.  Spine 1988 Aug;13(8):922-5. 
 
270.  Harper CM Jr, Low PA, Fealey RD, Chelimsky TC, Proper CJ, Gillen DA. Utility of thermography in the diagnosis of lumbosacral radiculopathy.  Neurology 1991 Jul;41(7):1010-4. 
 
271.  Perelman RB, Adler D, Humphreys M.  Electronic infrared thermography. A clinical comparison with computerized tomography of the lumbosacral spine.  J Neurol Orthop Med Surg 1985 Apr;6(1):7-12. 
 
272.  So YT, Aminoff MJ, Olney RK.  The role of thermography in the evaluation of lumbosacral radiculopathy [see comments].  Neurology 1989 Sep;39(9):1154-8. 
 
273.  Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, Patronas NJ, Wiesel SW.  Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1990;72(3):403-8.** 
 
    
273b Jensen, MC, Brant-Zawadzki MN, Obuchowski N, Modic MT, Malkasian D, Ross JS. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain. N Engl J Med 1994 Jul 14;331(2):69-73 
 
273c Borenstein DG, O'Mara JW Jr, Boden SD, Lauerman WC, Jacobson A, Platenberg C, Schellinger D, Wiesel SW. he value of magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine to predict low-back pain in asymptomatic subjects : a seven-year follow-up study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001 Sep;83-A(9):1306-11 
 
273d Jarvik JJ, Hollingworth W, Heagerty P, Haynor DR, Deyo RA.  The Longitudinal Assessment of Imaging and Disability of the Back (LAIDBack) Study: baseline data. Spine 2001 May 15;26(10):1158-66 
 
274.  Hitselberger WE, Witten RM.  Abnormal myelograms in asymptomatic patients.  J Neurosurg 1968;28:204-6. 
 
274e. Battie MC, Videman T, Gibbons LE, Fisher LD, Manninen H, Gill K. 1995 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. Determinants of lumbar disc degeneration. A study relating lifetime exposures and magnetic resonance imaging findings in identical twins. Spine 1995 Dec 15;20(24):2601-12 
 
274f: Videman T, Battie MC, Gibbons LE, Manninen H, Gill K, Fisher LD, Koskenvuo M. Lifetime exercise and disk degeneration: an MRI study of monozygotic twins. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997 Oct;29(10):1350-6 
 
274g:  Videman T, Battie MC. The influence of occupation on lumbar degeneration. Spine 1999 Jun 1;24(11):1164-8   
 
274h: Videman T, Simonen R, Usenius J, Osterman K, Battie M. The long-term effects of rally driving on spinal pathology. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2000 Feb;15(2):83-6 
 
274g: Battie MC, Videman T, Gibbons LE, Manninen H, Gill K, Pope M, Kaprio J.Occupational driving and lumbar disc degeneration: a case-control study. Lancet. 2002 Nov 2;360(9343):1369-74 
 
275.  Wiesel SW, Tsourmas N, Feffer HL, Citrin CM, Patronas N.  A study of computer-assisted tomography.  I. The incidence of positive CAT scans in an asymptomatic group of patients.  Spine 1984 Sep;9(6):549-51. 
 
276.  Biering-Sorensen F, Hansen FR, Schroll M, Runeborg O.  The relation of spinal x-ray to low-back pain and physical activity among 60-year-old men and women.  Spine 1985 Jun;10(5):445-51. 
 
277.  Bigos SJ, Hansson T, Castillo RN, Beecher PJ, Wortley MD.  The value of preemployment roentgenographs for predicting acute back injury claims and chronic back pain disability.  Clin Orthop Rel Res 1992 Oct;283:124-9. 
 
278.  Deyo RA, Diehl AK.  Lumbar spine films in primary care: current use and effects of selective ordering criteria.  J Gen Intern Med 1986 Jan-Feb;1(1):20-5. 
 
279.  Fullenlove TM, Williams AJ.  Comparative roentgen findings in symptomatic and asymptomatic backs.  Radiology 1957;68:572-4. 
 
280.  Grubb SA, Lipscomb HJ, Guilford WB. The relative value of lumbar roentgenograms, metrizamide myelography, and discography in the assessment of patients with chronic low-back syndrome.  Spine 1987 Apr;12(3):282-6. 
 
281.  Hansson T, Bigos S, Beecher P, Wortley M.  The lumbar lordosis in acute and chronic low-back pain.  Spine 1985 Mar;10(2):154-5. 
 
282.  Kaplan DM, Knapp M, Romm FJ, Velez R.  Low back pain and x-ray films of the lumbar spine: a prospective study in primary care.  South Med J 1986 Jul;79(7):811-4. 
 
283.  LaRocca H, Macnab I.  Value of pre-employment radiographic assessment of the lumbar spine.  Can Med Assoc J 1969 Oct 4;101:49-54. 
 
284.  LaRocca H, Macnab I.  Value of pre-employment radiographic assessment of the lumbar spine.  Indus Med 1970 Jun;39(6):253-8. 
 
285.  Leboeuf C, Kimber D, White K.  Prevalence of spondylolisthesis, transitional anomalies and low intercrestal line in a chiropractic patient population.  J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1989 Jun;12(3):200-4. 
 
286.  Libson E, Bloom RA, Dinari G.  Symptomatic and asymptomatic spondylolysis and spondylisthesis in young adults.  Int Orthop 1982;6:259-61. 
 
287.  Libson E, Bloom RA, Dinari G, Robin GC.  Oblique lumbar spine radiographs: importance in young patients.  Radiology 1984 Apr;151(1):89-90. 
 
288.  Magora A, Schwartz A.  Relation between the low back pain syndrome and x-ray findings.  1.  Degenerative osteoarthritis.  Scand J Rehab Med 1976;8:115-25. 
 
289.  Magora A, Schwartz A.  Relation between the low back pain syndrome and x-ray findings.  3.  Spina bifida occulta.  Scand J Rehabil Med 1980;12(1):9-15. 
 
290.  Magora A, Schwartz A.  Relation between low back pain and x-ray changes.  4.  Lysis and olisthesis.  Scand J Rehabil Med 1980;12(2):47-52. 
 
291.  Paajanen H, Erkintalo M, Dahlström S, Kuusela T, Svedström E, Kormano M.  Disc degeneration and lumbar instability.  Magnetic resonance examination of 16 patients.  Acta Orthop Scand 1989 Aug;60(4):375-8. 
 
292.  Splithoff CA.  Lumbosacral junction: roentgenographic comparison of patients with and without backaches.  JAMA 1953 Aug 22;152(17):1610-3. 
 
293.  Swärd L, Hellström M, Jacobsson B, Peterson L.  Back pain and radiologic changes in the thoraco-lumbar spine of athletes.  Spine 1990 Feb;15(2):124-9. 
 
294.  Torgerson WR, Dotter WE.  Comparative roentgenographic study of the asymptomatic and symptomatic lumbar spine.  J Bone Joint Surg 1976 Sep;58(6):850-3. 
 
295.  Boxall D, Bradford DS, Winter RB, Moe JH.  Management of severe spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1979 June;61-A(4):479-495. 
 
296.  Hall FM.  Back pain and the radiologist.  Radiology 1980 Dec;137(3):861-3. 
 
297.  Kent DL, Haynor DR, Larson EB, Deyo RA.  Diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis in adults: A metaanalysis of the accuracy of CT, MR, and myelography.  Am J Roentgenol 1992 May;158:1135-44. 
 
298.  Fries JW, Abodeely DA, Vijungco JG, Yeager VL, Gaffey WR.  Computed tomography of herniated and extruded nucleus pulposus.  J Comput Assist Tomogr 1982 Oct;6(5):874-87. 
 
299.  Gillström P, Ericsson K, Hindmarsh T.  A comparison of computed tomography and myelography in the diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation.  Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1986;106(1):12-4. 
 
300.  Haughton VM, Eldevik OP, Magnaes B, Amundsen P.  A prospective omparison of computed tomography and myelography in the diagnosis of herniated lumbar disks.  Neuroradiology 1982 Jan;142(1):103-10. 
 
301.  Hirsch C, Nachemson A.  The reliability of lumbar disk surgery.  Clin Orthop 1963;29:189. 
 
302.  Jackson RP, Cain JE, Jacobs RR, Cooper BR, McManus GE.  The neuroradiographic diagnosis of lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus: I. A comparison of computed tomography(CT), myelography, CT-myelography, discography, and CT-discography.  Spine 1989;14(12):1356-60. 
 
303.  Jackson RP, Cain JE, Jacobs RR, Cooper BR, McManus GE.  The neuroradiographic diagnosis of lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus: II. A comparison of computed tomography(CT), myelography, CT-myelography,  and magnetic resonance imaging.  Spine 1989;14(12):1362-7. 
 
304.  Ketonen L, Gyldensted C.  Lumbar disc disease evaluated by myelography and postmyelography spinal computed tomography Neuroradiology 1986;28(2):144-9. 
 
305.  Masaryk TJ, Ross JS, Modic MT, Boumphrey F, Bohlman H, Wilber G. High-resolution MR imaging of sequestered lumbar intervertebral disks.  Am J Roentgenol 1988 May;150:1155-62. 
 
306.  Modic MT, Masaryk T, Boumphrey F, Goormastic M, Bell G.  Lumbar herniated disk disease and canal stenosis: prospective evaluation by surface coil MR, CT, and myelography.  AJR 1986 Oct;147(4):757-65. 
 
307.  Moufarrij NA, Hardy RW, Weinstein MA.  Computed tomographic, myelographic, and operative findings in patients with suspected herniated lumbar discs.  Neurosurgery 1983 Feb;12(2):184-8. 
 
308.  Schipper J, Kardaun JW, Braakman R, van Dongen KJ, Blaauw G.  Lumbar disk herniation: diagnosis with CT or myelography.  Radiology 1987 Oct;165(1):227-31. 
 
309.  Slebus FG, Braakman R, Schipper J, van Dongen KJ, Westendorp-de Serière M.  Non-corresponding radiological and surgical diagnoses in patients operated for sciatica.  Acta Neurochir 1988;94:137-43. 
 
310.  Szypryt EP, Twining P, Wilde GP, Mulholland RC, Worthington BS. Diagnosis of lumbar disc protrusion.  A comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and radiculography.  J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1988 Nov;70(5):717-22. 
 
311.  Sackett DL, Haynes RB, Guyatt GH, Tugwell P.  Clinical epidemiology: a basic science for clinical medicine.  2nd ed. Boston/Toronto/London: Little, Brown and Co.; 1991.  441 p. 
 
312.  Bell GR, Rothman RH, Booth RE, Cuckler JM, Garfin S, Herkowitz H, Simeone FA, Dolinskas C, Han SS.  A study of computer-assisted tomography.  II.  Comparison of metrizamide myelography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of herniated lumbar disc and spinal stenosis.  Spine 1984;9(6):552-6. 
 
313.  Bolender NF, Schönström NSR, Spengler DM.  Role of computed tomography and myelography in the diagnosis of central spinal stenosis.  J Bone Joint Surg 1985 Feb;67A(2):240-6. 
 
314.  Epstein NE, Epstein JA, Carras R, Hyman RA.  Far lateral lumbar disc herniations and associated structural abnormalities.  An evaluation in 60 patients of the comparative value of CT, MRI, and myelo-CT in diagnosis and management.  Spine 1990 Jun;15(6):534-9. 
 
315.  Herkowitz HN, Gafin SR, Bell GR, Bumphrey F, Rothman RH.  The use of omputerized tomography in evaluating non-visualized vertebral levels caudad to a complete block on a lumbar myelogram.  J Bone Joint Surg 1987 Feb;69A(2):218-24. 
 
316.  Modic MT, Pavlicek W, Weinstein MA, Boumphrey F, Ngo F, Hardy R, Duchesneau PM.  Magnetic resonance imaging of intervertebral disk disease.  Radiology 1984 Jul;152(1):103-11. 
 
317.  Schnebel B, Kingston S, Watkins R, Dillin W.  Comparison of MRI to contrast CT in the diagnosis of spinal stenosis.  Spine 1989 Mar;14(3):332-7. 
 
318.  Schönström NSR, Bolender NF, Spengler DM.  The pathomorphology of spinal stenosis as seen on CT scans of the lumbar spine.  Spine 1985;10(9):806-11. 
 
319.  Stockley I, Getty CJM, Dixon AK, Glaves I, Euinton HA, Barrington NA. Lumbar lateral canal entrapment: clinical, radiculographic and computed tomographic findings.  Clin Radiol 1988;39:144-9. 
 
320.  Voelker JL, Mealey J Jr, Eskridge JM, Gilmor RL. Metrizamide-enhanced computed tomography as an adjunct to metrizamide myelography in the evaluation of lumbar disc herniation and spondylosis.  Neurosurgery 1987 Mar;20(3):379-84. 
 
321.  Zlatkin MB, Lander PH, Hadjipavlou AG, Levine JS.  Paget disease of the spine: CT with clinical correlation.  Radiology 1986 Jul;160(1):155-9. 
 
322.  Powell MC, Wilson M, Szypryt P, Symonds EM, Worthington BS. Prevalence of lumbar disc degeneration observed by magnetic resonance in symptomless women.  Lancet 1986 Dec 13;2(8520):1366-7. 
 
323.  Weinreb JC, Wolbarsht LB, Cohen JM, Brown CE, Maravilla KR Prevalence of lumbosacral intervertebral disk abnormalities on MR images in pregnant and asymptomatic nonpregnant women.  Radiolog 1989 Jan;170(1 Pt 1):125-8. 
 
324.  Colhoun E, McCall IW, Williams L, Cassar Pullicino VN.  Provocation discography as a guide to planning operations on the spine.  J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1988 Mar;70(2):267-71. 
 
325.  Gill K, Jackson RP.  CT-Discography.  In: Frymoyer JW, editor.  The adult spine: principles and practice.  New York: Raven Press, Ltd.;1991.  p.443-56. 
 
326.  Holt EP.  The question of lumbar discography.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1968 Jun;50(4):720-6. 
 
327.  Walsh TR, Weinstein JN, Spratt KF, Lehmann TR, Aprill C, Sayre H. Lumbar discography in normal subjects.  A controlled, prospective study. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1990 Aug;72(7):1081-8. * 
 
(Walsh et al, '90 re-examined with more appropriate Cohorts by Carragee) 
327a Carragee EJ; Tanner CM; Yang B; Brito JL; Truong T, False-positive findings on lumbar discography. Reliability of subjective concordance assessment during provocative disc injection. Spine 1999 Dec 1;24(23):2542-7  * 
 
327b Carragee EJ; Tanner CM; Khurana S; Hayward C; Welsh J; Date E; Truong T; Rossi M; Hagle C, The rates of false-positive lumbar discography in select patients without low back symptoms. Spine 2000 June 1;25(11):1373-80,  
 
327c Carragee EJ; Chen Y; Tanner CM; Hayward C; Rossi M; Hagle C, Can discography cause long-term back symptoms in previously asymptomatic subjects? Spine 2000 Jul 15;25(14):1803-8,  
 
327d Carragee EJ, Paragioudakis SJ, Khurana S. 2000 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies: Lumbar high-intensity zone and discography in subjects without low back problems. Spine 2000 Dec 1;25(23):2987-92,  
 
327e  Carragee EJ, Alamin TF, Miller J, Grafe M. Provocative discography in volunteer subjects with mild persistent low back pain. Spine J. 2002 Jan-Feb;2(1):25-34  
 
327f  Carragee EJ, Barcohana B, Alamin T, van den Haak E. Prospective controlled study of the development of lower back pain in previously asymptomatic subjects undergoing experimental discography. Spine. 2004 May 15;29(10):1112-7. 
 
327g Carragee EJ, Alamin TF, Miller JL, Carragee JM. Discographic, MRI and psychosocial determinants of low back pain disability and remission: a prospective study in subjects with benign persistent back pain. Spine J. 2005 Jan-Feb;5(1):24-35. 
 
327h Carragee EJ, Lincoln T, Parmar VS, Alamin T. A gold standard evaluation of the "discogenic pain" diagnosis as determined by provocative discography. Spine. 2006 Aug 15;31(18):2115-23. 
 
327i Madan S, Gundanna M, Harley JM, Boeree NR, Sampson M. Does provocative discography screening of discogenic back pain improve surgical outcome? J Spinal Disord Tech 2002;15:245-51 
 
327j Buenaventura RM, Shah RV, Patel V, Benyamin R, Singh V. Systematic Review of Discography as a Diagnostic Test for Spinal Pain: An Update. Pain Physician 2007; 10:147-164 ISSN 1533-3159 You must read beyond the abstract to get the story 
 
328.  Crawshaw C, Frazer AM, Merriam WF, Mulholland RC, Webb JK.  A comparison of surgery and chemonucleolysis in the treatment of sciatica.  A prospective randomized trial.  Spine 1984 Mar;9(2):195-8. 
 
329.  Ejeskär A, Nachemson A, Herberts P, Lysell E, Andersson G, Irstam L, Peterson LE.  Surgery versus chemonucleolysis for herniated lumbar discs.  A prospective study with random assignment.  Clin Orthop 1983  Apr;(174):236-42. 
 
330.   Fraser RD. Chymopapain for the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation: A preliminary report of a double-blind study.  Spine 1982;7:608-12. 
 
331 . Fraser RD. Chymopapain for the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation.  The final report of a double-blind study.  Spine 1984 Nov-Dec;9(8):815-8. 
 
332.  Gogan WJ, Fraser RD.  Chymopapain.  A 10-year, double-blind study Spine 1992;17(4):388-94. 
 
333.  Javid MJ, Nordby EJ, Ford LT, Hejna WJ, Whisler WW, Burton C, Millett DK, Wiltse LL, Widell EH Jr, Boyd RJ, Newton SE, Thisted R.  Safety and efficacy of chymopapain (Chymodiactin) in herniated nucleus pulposus with sciatica.  Results of a randomized, double-blind study. JAMA 1983 May 13;249(18):2489-94. 
 
334.  Revel M, Payan C, Vallee C, Laredo JD, Lassale B, Roux C, Carter H, Salomon C, Delmas E, Roucoules J, Beauvais C, Savy JM, Chicheportiche V, Bourgeois P, Smadja M, Hercot O, Wybier M, Cagan G, Blum-Boisgard C, Fermanian J.  Automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy versus chemonucleolysis in the treatment of sciatica.  Spine 1993;18(1):1-7. 
 
 334a Barendse GA, van den Berg SG, Kessels AH, Weber WE, van Kleef M. Randomized controlled trial of percutaneous intradiscal radiofrequency thermocoagulation for chronic discogenic back pain: lack of effect from a 90-second 70 C lesion. Spine 2001; 26:287-92. 
 
 334b: Pauza KJ, Howell S, Dreyfuss P, Peloza JH, Dawson K, Bogduk N. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of IDET for the treatment of discogenic LBP. The Spine J 2004;4:27-35 
 
 334c: Lau, Bogduk. A controlled trial of IDET. ISIS Annual Meeting, 2004 
 
334d: Freeman BJ, Fraser RD, Cain CM, Hall DJ, Chapple DC.. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial: intradiscal electrothermal therapy versus placebo for the treatment of chronic discogenic low back pain. Spine. 2005 Nov 1;30(21):2369-77) 
 
334e. Freeman BJ, Walters RM, Moore RJ, Fraser RD.Does intradiscal electrothermal therapy denervate and repair experimentally induced posterolateral annular tears in an animal model? Spine. 2003 Dec 1;28(23):2602-8.  
 
335.  Tullberg T, Isacson J, Weidenhielm L.  Does microscopic removal of lumbar disc herniation lead to better results than the standardized procedure?  Results of a one-year randomized study.  Spine 1993;18(1):17-20. 
 
336.  van Alphen HAM, Braakman R, Bezemer PD, Broere G, Berfelo MW. Chemonucleolysis versus discectomy: a randomized multicenter trial. J Neurosurg 1989 Jun;70(6):869-75. 
 
337.  Watters WC 3d, Mirkovic S, Boss J.  Treatment of the isolated lumbar  intervertebral disc herniation: microdiscectomy versus chemonucleolysis.  Spine 1988 Mar;13(3):360-2. 
 
338.  Weber H.  The effect of delayed disc surgery on muscular paresis. Acta Orthop Scand 1975;46:631-42. 
 
339.  Weber H.  Lumbar disc herniation.  A controlled, prospective study with ten years of observation.  Spine 1983 Mar;8(2):131-40. 
 
50a  Carragee EJ, Kim DH., A prospective analysis of magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation. Correlation of outcomes with disc fragment and canal morphology. Spine 1997 Jul 15;22(14):1650-60   
 
50b  Schade V, Semmer N, Main CJ, Hora J, Boos N, The impact of clinical, morphological,  psychosocial and work-related factors on the outcome of lumbar discectomy. Pain 1999 Mar;80(1-2):239-49    
 
50c  Boos N, Rieder R, Schade V, Spratt KF, Semmer N, Aebi M. 1995 Volvo Award in clinical  sciences. The diagnostic accuracy   of magnetic resonance imaging, work perception, and psychosocial factors in identifying symptomatic disc herniations. spine 1995 Dec 15;20(24):2613-25  
 
50d  Hansson TH, Hansson EK. The effects of common medical interventions on pain,  back function, and work resumption in   patients with chronic low back pain: A prospective 2-year cohort study in six countries. Spine. 2000 Dec 1;25(23):3055-64] 
 
63  Spangfort, EV. The lumbar disc herniation. A computer-aided analysis of 2,504 operations. Acta Orthop. Scand. Suppl. 142,:1-95, 1972. 
 
340.  Hoffman RM, Wheeler KJ, Deyo RA.  Surgery for herniated lumbar discs:      A literature synthesis.  J Gen Intern Med 1993 Sept;8:487-96. 
 
341.  Agre K, Wilson RR, Brim M, McDermott DJ.  Chymodiactin postmarketing surveillance.  Demographic and adverse experience data in 29,075 patients.  Spine 1984 Jul-Aug;9(5):479-85. 
 
342.  Alexander AH, Burkus JK, Mitchell JB, Ayers WV.  Chymopapain chemonucleolysis versus surgical discectomy in a military population. Clin Orthop 1989 Jul;(244):158-65. 
 
343.  Bouillet R.  Treatment of sciatica.  A comparative survey of complications of surgical treatment and nucleolysis with chymopapain. Clin Orthop 1990 Feb;(251):144-52. 
 
344.  Deeb ZL, Schimel S, Daffner RH, Lupetin AR, Hryshko FG, Blakley JB. Intervertebral disk-space infection after chymopapain injection.  Am J Neuroradiol 1985;6(1):55-58. 
 
345.  Deyo RA, Cherkin DC, Loeser JD, Bigos SJ, Ciol M.  Morbidity and mortality in association with operations on the lumbar spine.  The influence of age, diagnosis, and procedure.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1992;74-A(4):536-43. 
 
346.  Herkowitz HN, Kurz LT.  Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1991 July;73-A(6):802-8. 
 
    346a: Fischgrund JS, Mackay M, Herkowitz HN, Brower R, Montgomery DM, Kurz LT. 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis: a prospective, randomized study comparing decompressive laminectomy and arthrodesis with and without spinal instrumentation. Spine 1997 Dec 15;22(24):2807-12 
346b: Hägg O, Fritzell P, Nordwall A Swedish Lumbar Spine Group; Sexual function in mena nd women after anterior srgery for chronic low ack pain. European Spine J  2006 May 15(5):667-82) 
 
346c: Delamarter RB, Fribourg DM, Kanim LE, Bae H.. ProDisc artificial total lumbar disc replacement: introduction and early results from the United States clinical trial. Spine 2003;28:S167-175 
 
346d: McAfee PC, Fedder IL, Saiedy S, Shucosky EM, Cunningham BW. Experimental design of total disk replacement-experience with a prospective randomized study of the SB Charite. Spine 2003;28:S153-S162 
 
347.  Johnsson KE, Rosén I, Udén A.  The natural course of lumbar spinal stenosis.  Acta Orthop Scand 1990;61(Suppl)237:24. 
 
348.  Katz JN, Lipson SJ, Larson MG, McInnes JM, Fossel AH, Liang MH.  The outcome of decompressive laminectomy for degenerative lumbar stenosis.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1991 July;73-A(6):809-16.** 
 
 - 348a: Katz JN, Lipson SJ, Chang LC, Levine SA, Fossel AH, Liang MH. Seven- to 10-year outcome of decompressive surgery for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.. Spine 1996 Jan 1;21(1):92-8 
 
  - 348b: Katz JN, Stucki G, Lipson SJ, Fossel AH, Grobler LJ, Weinstein JN. Predictors of surgical outcome in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Spine 1999 Nov 1;24(21):2229-33 
 
 - 348c. Gibson JN, Waddell G, Grant IC. Surgery for degenerative lumbar spondylosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001352.  
 
349.  Lee CK, deBari A.  Lumbosacral spinal fusion with Knodt distraction rods. Spine 1986 May;11(4):373-5.** 
 
8 prospective trials indicate that Hardware only adds complications to fusion:         
- 346a. Fischgrund JS, Mackay M, Herkowitz HN, Brower R, Montgomery DM, Kurz LT. 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis: a prospective, randomized study comparing decompressive laminectomy and arthrodesis with and without spinal instrumentation. Spine1997 Dec15;22(24):2807-12     Volvo Award 
 
- 349a. Thomsen K, Christensen FB, Eiskjaer SP, Hansen ES, Fruensgaard S, Bunger CE. 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. The effect of pedicle screw instrumentation on functional outcome and fusion rates in posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion: a prospective, randomized clinical study. Spine 1997 Dec 15;22(24):2813-22      Volvo Award 
 
- 349b. France JC, Yaszemski MJ, Lauerman WC, Cain JE, Glover JM, Lawson KJ, Coe JD, Topper SM. A randomized prospective study of posterolateral lumbar fusion. Outcomes with and without pedicle screw instrumentation. Spine 1999 Mar 15;24(6):553-60 
 
- 349c. Grob D, Humke T, Dvorak J. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Decompression with and without arthrodesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995 Jul;77(7):1036-41 
 
- 349d. McGuire RA, Amundson GM. The use of primary internal fixation in spondylolisthesis. Spine 1993 Sep 15;18(12):1662-72 
 
- 349e. Moller H, Hedlund R. Instrumented and noninstrumented posterolateral fusion in adult spondylolisthesis--a prospective randomized study: part 2. Spine 2000 Jul 1;25(13):1716-21 
 
- 349f. Fritzell P, Olle Hägg, Wessberg P, Nordwall A, Lumbar Fusion Versus Non-surgical Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain, A Multi-center Randomized Controlled Trial From the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group, Spine 2001;26:2521-2532       Volvo Award 
 
- 349g. Zdeblick TA. A prospective, randomized study of lumbar fusion. Preliminary results. Spine 1993 Jun 15;18(8):983-91 (scientific flaw- 9/120 pre-selected for instrumentation considered poor candidates and were put in the non-instrumented group- trials 349a-g. avoided this flaw) 
 
349h. Ekman P, Moller H, Hedlund R The long-term effect of posterolateral fusion in adult isthmic spondylolisthesis: a randomized controlled study. Spine J. 2005 Jan-Feb;5(1):36-44.  
 
350.  White AH, von Rogov P, Zucherman J, Heiden D.  Lumbar laminectomy for herniated disc: a prospective controlled comparison with internal fixation fusion. Spine 1987 Apr;12(3):305-7. 
 
351.  Turner JA, Ersek M, Herron L, Haselkorn J, Kent D, Ciol MA, Deyo R. Patient outcomes after lumbar spinal fusions.  JAMA 1992 Aug 19;268(7):907-11 
 
Prospective studies addressed Fusion Rate: not related to outcome (Good & bad results same fusion rate) 
- 349a. Thomsen K, Christensen FB, Eiskjaer SP, Hansen ES, Fruensgaard S, Bunger CE. 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. The effect of pedicle screw instrumentation on functional outcome and fusion rates in posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion: a prospective, randomized clinical study. Spine 1997 Dec 15;22(24):2813-22      Volvo Award 
 
346a. Fischgrund JS, Mackay M, Herkowitz HN, Brower R, Montgomery DM, Kurz LT. 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis: a prospective, randomized study comparing decompressive laminectomy and arthrodesis with and without spinal instrumentation. Spine1997 Dec15;22(24):2807-12     Volvo Award 
 
- 349b. France JC, Yaszemski MJ, Lauerman WC, Cain JE, Glover JM, Lawson KJ, Coe JD, Topper SM. A randomized prospective study of posterolateral lumbar fusion. Outcomes with and without pedicle screw instrumentation. Spine 1999 Mar 15;24(6):553-6 
 
- 349f. Fritzell P, Olle Hägg, Wessberg P, Nordwall A, Lumbar Fusion Versus Non-surgical Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain, A Multi-center Randomized Controlled Trial From the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group, Spine 2001;26:2521-2532       Volvo Award 
 
351a  Brox JI, Sorensen R, Friis A, Nygaard O, Indahl A, Keller A, Ingebrigtsen T, Eriksen HR, Holm I, Koller AK, Riise R, Reikeras O. Randomized Clinical Trial of Lumbar Instrumented Fusion and Cognitive Intervention and Exercises in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain and Disk Degeneration.Spine. 2003 Sep 1;28(17):1913-1921  
 
351b  Fairbank J, Frost H, Wilson-MacDonald J, Yu LM, Barker K, Collins R; Spine. Randomised controlled trial to compare surgical stabilisation of the lumbar spine with an intensive rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic low back pain: the MRC spine stabilisation trial.BMJ. 2005 May 28;330(7502):1233. Epub 2005 May 23. Erratum in: BMJ. 2005 Jun 25;330(7506):1485.  
 
351 c Deyo RA, Nachemson A, Mirza SK.Spinal-Fusion Surgery - The Case for Restraint. N Engl J Med. 2004 Feb 12;350(7):722-6.  
 
351d Carragee EJ, Lincoln T, Parmar VS, Alamin T. A gold standard evaluation of the "discogenic pain" diagnosis as determined by provocative discography. Spine. 2006 Aug 15;31(18):2115-23. 
 
351e  Carragee E, Alamin T. A prospective assessment of patient expectations and satisfaction in spinal fusion surgery. 30th Annual Meeting of the ISSLS, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, May 13—17, 2003. abstract. 
 
352.  Bigos SJ, Battié‚ MC, Spengler DM, Fisher LD, Fordyce WE, Hansson TH, Nachemson AL, Zeh J.  A longitudinal, prospective study of industrial back injury reporting.  Clin Orthop 1992 Jun;(279):21-34.(also see reference 358
 
352a. Daltroy LH, Iversen MD, Larson MG, Lew R, Wright E, Ryan J, Zwerling C, Fossel AH, Liang MH., A controlled trial of an educational program to prevent low back injuries. N Engl J Med 1997 Jul 31;337(5):322-8 
 
   352b: Krause N, Ragland DR, Fisher JM, Syme SL. Psychosocial job factors, physical workload, and incidence of work-related spinal injury: a 5-year prospective study of urban transit operators. Spine 1998 Dec 1;23(23):2507-16 
 
352c Yassi A, Cooper JE, Tate RB, Gerlach S, Muir M, Trottier J, Massey K. A randomized controlled trial to prevent patient lift and transfer injuries of health care workers. Spine 2001 Aug 15;26(16):1739-174 [Suggested favorable subjective comparisons by Yassi et al.`01, were invalidated by  pre-intervention baseline data that favored the intervention group
 
352d Smedley J, Trevelyan F, Inskip H, Buckle P, Cooper C, Coggon D. Impact of ergonomic intervention on back pain among nurses. Scand J Work Environ Health 2003 Apr;29(2):117-23 
 
352e Harkness EF, Macfarlane GJ, Nahit ES, Silman AJ, McBeth J., Risk factors for new-onset low back pain amongst cohorts of newly employed workers. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003 Apr16 42(1) 
 
352f  Maul I, Laubli T, Klipstein A, Krueger H. Course of low back pain among nurses: a longitudinal study across eight years. Occup Environ Med. 2003 Jul;60 (7):497-503. 
 
352g Hartvigsen J, Lauritzen S, Lings S, Lauritzen T .Intensive education combined with low tech ergonomic intervention does not prevent low back pain in nurses.Occup Environ Med. 2005 Jan;62(1):13-7.  
 
352h Jensen LD, Gonge H, Jors E, Ryom P, Foldspang A, Christensen M, Vesterdorf A, Bonde JP. Prevention of low back pain in female eldercare workers: randomized controlled work site trial.Spine. 2006 Jul 15;31(16):1761-9 
 
352i Lavender SA, Lorenz EP, Andersson GB. Can a new behaviorally oriented training process to improve lifting technique prevent occupationally related back injuries due to lifting? Spine. 2007 Feb 15;32(4):487-94.  
 
352j Izelenberg H, Meerding WJ, Burdof A.  Effectiveness of a back pain prevention program: a cluster randomized controlled trial in an occupational setting. Spine. 2007 Apr 1;32(7):711-9. 
 
362k Thelin A, Holmberg S, Thelin N. Functioning in neck and low back pain from a 12-year perspective: a prospective (farmer) population-based study. J Rehabil Med. 2008 Jul;40(7):555-61. 
 
353.  Eie N.  Comparison of the results in patients operated upon for ruptured lumbar discs with and without spinal fusion.  Acta Neurochir 1978;41:107-13. 
 
354.  Frymoyer JW, Hanley E, Howe J, Kuhlmann D, Matteri R.  Disc excision and spine fusion in the management of lumbar disc disease.  Spine 1978 Mar;3(1):1-6. 
 
355.  Schofferman J, Anderson D, Hines R, Smith G, White A.  Childhood psychological trauma correlates with unsuccessful lumbar spine surgery.  Spine 1992 Jun;17(6S):S138-44. 
 
356.  Vaughan PA, Malcolm BW, Maistrelli GL.  Results of L4-L5 disc excision alone versus disc excision and fusion.  Spine 1988 Jun;13(6):690-5. 
 
357.  Waddell G.  Biopsychosocial analysis of low back pain.  Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1992 Oct;6(3):523-57. 
 
   357a. Waddell G, Newton M, Henderson I, Somerville D, Main CJ. A Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) and the role of fear-avoidance beliefs in chronic low back pain and disability. Pain 1993 Feb;52(2):157-68 
 
358.  Bigos SJ, Battié‚ MC, Spengler DM, Fisher LD, Fordyce WE, Hansson TH, Nachemson AL, Wortley MD.  A prospective study of work perceptions and psychosocial factors affecting the report of back injury.  Spine 1991;16(1):1-6. 
 
358a  Klenerman L, Slade P, Stanley I, et al. The prediction of chronicity in patients with acute attack of low back pain in a general practice setting. Spine 1995; 20:478-84.  
 
358b Valat JP, Goupille P, Vedere V. Low back pain: Risk factors for chronicity. Rev Rhum Engl Ed 1997;64:189-94.  
 
358c Linton SJ. A review of psychological risk factors in back and neck pain. Spine. 2000 May 1;25(9):1148-56.  913 potentially relevant articles- 37 studies prospective designs to ensure quality. Stress - distress, or anxiety - mood and emotions - cognitive functioning, - pain behavior all significant. Personality factors produced mixed results and potentially abuse related to the onset, and to acute, subacute, and chronic pain.  
358d Bergstrom G, Bodin L, Jensen IB, Linton SJ, Nygren AL. Long-term, non-specific spinal pain: reliable and valid subgroups of patients. Behav Res Ther. 2001 Jan;39(1):75-87.  Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPIs) - "adaptive coper", "dysfunctional" and "interpersonally distressed" patients).  
358e Pincus T, Burton AK, Vogel S, Field AP. A systematic review of psychological factors as predictors of chronicity/disability in prospective cohorts of low back pain. Spine. 2002 Mar 1;27(5):E109-20.  Twenty-five publications (18 cohorts) included psychological factors at baseline. Six of these met acceptability = distress, depressive mood, and somatization implicated transition to chronic low back pain although weak support catastrophizing  
358f  Fayad F, Lefevre-Colau MM, Poiraudeau S, et al. Chronicity, recurrence, and return to work in low back pain: common prognostic factors. Annales de readaption et de medecine physique. 2004;47:179-189.   
358g Holmberg S, Thelin A, Stiernström EL, Svärdsudd K. Psychosocial factors and low back pain, consultations, and sick leave among farmers and rural referents: a population-based study. J Occup Environ Med. 2004 Sep;46(9):993-8.  
358h Boersma K, Linton SJ. How does persistent pain develop? An analysis of the relationship between psychological variables, pain and function across stages of chronicity. Behav Res Ther. 2005 Nov;43(11):1495-507.  [<1 year (N=48), 1-3 years (N=47) and >3 years (N=89)] Relationship between Fear of movement and function moderated by stage of chronicity - not explain pain <1 year, BUT did explain pain duration of 1-3 years and >3 years.  
 
358i  Carragee, EJ, Persistent Low Back Pain. NEJM 352;18 May 5, 2005 
 
38j. Hay EM, Lewis M, Vohora K, et al. Comparison of physical treatments versus a brief pain-management programme for back pain in primary care: a randomised clinical trial in physiotherapy practice. Lancet. 2005;365:2024-2030.  
39k. Jellema P, van der Windt D, van der Horst H, Twisk J, Stalman W, Bouter L. Should treatment of (sub)acute low back pain be aimed at psychosocial prognostic factors? Cluster randomised clinical trial in general practice. BMJ. 2005;331(7508):84.   
 
358l. Carragee E, Alamin T, Cheng I, Franklin T, Hurwitz E. Does minor trauma cause serious low back illness? Spine. 2006 Dec 1;31(25):2942-9. 
 
358m Brage S, Sandanger I, Nygård JF. Emotional distress as a predictor for low back disability. A prospective 12-year population-based study. Spine 2007; 32:269-74 
 
358n. Simon M, Tackenberg P, Nienhaus A, Estryn-Behar M, Maurice Conway P, Hasselhorn HM. Back or neck-pain-related disability of nursing staff in hospitals, nursing homes and home care in seven countries-results from the European NEXT-Study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2007 Jan 9; [Epub ahead of print]   
 
359.  Skovron ML, Szpalski M, Nordin M, Melot C, Cukier D.  Sociocultural factors and back pain.  A population-based study in Belgian adults. Spine 1994 Jan 15;19(2):129-37. 
 
 359a: Szpalski M, Nordin M, Skovron ML, Melot C, Cukier D. Health care utilization for low back pain in Belgium. Influence of sociocultural factors and health beliefs. Spine 1995 Feb 15;20(4):431-42  
 
360.  Wiltse LL, Rocchio PD.  Preoperative psychological tests as predictors of success of chemonucleolysis in the treatment of the  low-back syndrome.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1975 Jun;57(4):478-83. A literature synthesis.  J Gen Intern Med 1993 Sept;8:487-96. 
 
360a. Kaptchuk TJ, Goldman P, Stone DA, Stason WB. Do medical devices have enhanced placebo effects? J Clin Epidemiol. 2000 Aug;53(8):786-92. 
 
Back to the Top of page          Prior Page              Next Page 
SRC Spinemate - only used or reproduced with written permission from SResourceC@aol.com