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 1.  Andersson GBJ.  The epidemiology of spinal disorders.  In: Frymoyer JW, editor.  The adult spine: principles and practice.  New York: Raven Press, Ltd.;1991.  p. 107-46. 
 2.  Vallfors B. Acute, subacute and chronic low back pain: Clinical symptoms, absenteeism and working environment.  Scand J Rehab Med Suppl 1985;11:1-98.  
       2a. Hart LG, Deyo RA, Cherkin DC. Physician office visits for low back pain: Frequency, clinical evaluation, and treatment patterns from a U.S. national survey. Spine. 1995;20:11-19. 
 2.a Cassidy JD, Carroll LJ, Cote P. The Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey: the prevalence of low back pain and related disability in Saskatchewan adults. Spine 1998;23:1860-66. 
2b. Deyo RA, Mirza SK, Martin BI. Back pain prevalence and visit rates. Spine. 2006;31(23):2724-2727. 
2c. Carey TS, Evans AT, Hadler NM, et al. Acute severe low back pain: A population-based study of prevalence and care-seeking. Spine. 1996;221:339-344. 
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 6b. 8. Frymoyer JW, Cats-Baril WL. An overview of the incidences and costs of low back pain. Orthop Clin North Am. 1991;22:263-271. 
6a. Linton SJ, Ryberg M. Do epidemiological results replicate? The prevalence and health-economic consequences of neck and back pain in the general population. Eur J Pain. 2000;4(4):347-54.  
6a. Pengel LH, Herbert RD, Maher CG, Refshauge KM. Acute low back pain: systematic review of its prognosis. BMJ. 2003 Aug 9;327(7410):323.   
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7b. Andersson GBJ. Epidemiological features of chronic low-back pain. Lancet. 1999;354:581-585. 
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8a. Von Korff M, Saunders K. The course of back pain in primary care. Spine. 1996;21:2833-2839. 
8b. Hestbaek L, Leboeuf-Yde C, Manniche C. Low back pain: what is the long-term course? A review of studies of general patient populations. Eur Spine J. 2003;12:149-165. 
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327a Carragee EJ; Tanner CM; Yang B; Brito JL; Truong T, False-positive findings on lumbar discography. Reliability of subjective concordance assessment during provocative disc injection. Spine 1999 Dec 1;24(23):2542-7  * 
327b Carragee EJ; Tanner CM; Khurana S; Hayward C; Welsh J; Date E; Truong T; Rossi M; Hagle C, The rates of false-positive lumbar discography in select patients without low back symptoms. Spine 2000 June 1;25(11):1373-80,  
327c Carragee EJ; Chen Y; Tanner CM; Hayward C; Rossi M; Hagle C, Can discography cause long-term back symptoms in previously asymptomatic subjects? Spine 2000 Jul 15;25(14):1803-8,  
327d Carragee EJ, Paragioudakis SJ, Khurana S. 2000 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies: Lumbar high-intensity zone and discography in subjects without low back problems. Spine 2000 Dec 1;25(23):2987-92,  
327e  Carragee EJ, Alamin TF, Miller J, Grafe M. Provocative discography in volunteer subjects with mild persistent low back pain. Spine J. 2002 Jan-Feb;2(1):25-34  
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327g Carragee EJ, Alamin TF, Miller JL, Carragee JM. Discographic, MRI and psychosocial determinants of low back pain disability and remission: a prospective study in subjects with benign persistent back pain. Spine J. 2005 Jan-Feb;5(1):24-35. 
327h Carragee EJ, Lincoln T, Parmar VS, Alamin T. A gold standard evaluation of the "discogenic pain" diagnosis as determined by provocative discography. Spine. 2006 Aug 15;31(18):2115-23. 
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 334a Barendse GA, van den Berg SG, Kessels AH, Weber WE, van Kleef M. Randomized controlled trial of percutaneous intradiscal radiofrequency thermocoagulation for chronic discogenic back pain: lack of effect from a 90-second 70 C lesion. Spine 2001; 26:287-92. 
 334b: Pauza KJ, Howell S, Dreyfuss P, Peloza JH, Dawson K, Bogduk N. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of IDET for the treatment of discogenic LBP. The Spine J 2004;4:27-35 
 334c: Lau, Bogduk. A controlled trial of IDET. ISIS Annual Meeting, 2004 
334d: Freeman BJ, Fraser RD, Cain CM, Hall DJ, Chapple DC.. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial: intradiscal electrothermal therapy versus placebo for the treatment of chronic discogenic low back pain. Spine. 2005 Nov 1;30(21):2369-77) 
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50d  Hansson TH, Hansson EK. The effects of common medical interventions on pain,  back function, and work resumption in   patients with chronic low back pain: A prospective 2-year cohort study in six countries. Spine. 2000 Dec 1;25(23):3055-64] 
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346b: Hägg O, Fritzell P, Nordwall A Swedish Lumbar Spine Group; Sexual function in mena nd women after anterior srgery for chronic low ack pain. European Spine J  2006 May 15(5):667-82) 
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8 prospective trials indicate that Hardware only adds complications to fusion:         
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- 349a. Thomsen K, Christensen FB, Eiskjaer SP, Hansen ES, Fruensgaard S, Bunger CE. 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. The effect of pedicle screw instrumentation on functional outcome and fusion rates in posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion: a prospective, randomized clinical study. Spine 1997 Dec 15;22(24):2813-22      Volvo Award 
- 349b. France JC, Yaszemski MJ, Lauerman WC, Cain JE, Glover JM, Lawson KJ, Coe JD, Topper SM. A randomized prospective study of posterolateral lumbar fusion. Outcomes with and without pedicle screw instrumentation. Spine 1999 Mar 15;24(6):553-60 
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- 349f. Fritzell P, Olle Hägg, Wessberg P, Nordwall A, Lumbar Fusion Versus Non-surgical Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain, A Multi-center Randomized Controlled Trial From the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group, Spine 2001;26:2521-2532       Volvo Award 
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Prospective studies addressed Fusion Rate: not related to outcome (Good & bad results same fusion rate) 
- 349a. Thomsen K, Christensen FB, Eiskjaer SP, Hansen ES, Fruensgaard S, Bunger CE. 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. The effect of pedicle screw instrumentation on functional outcome and fusion rates in posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion: a prospective, randomized clinical study. Spine 1997 Dec 15;22(24):2813-22      Volvo Award 
346a. Fischgrund JS, Mackay M, Herkowitz HN, Brower R, Montgomery DM, Kurz LT. 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis: a prospective, randomized study comparing decompressive laminectomy and arthrodesis with and without spinal instrumentation. Spine1997 Dec15;22(24):2807-12     Volvo Award 
- 349b. France JC, Yaszemski MJ, Lauerman WC, Cain JE, Glover JM, Lawson KJ, Coe JD, Topper SM. A randomized prospective study of posterolateral lumbar fusion. Outcomes with and without pedicle screw instrumentation. Spine 1999 Mar 15;24(6):553-6 
- 349f. Fritzell P, Olle Hägg, Wessberg P, Nordwall A, Lumbar Fusion Versus Non-surgical Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain, A Multi-center Randomized Controlled Trial From the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group, Spine 2001;26:2521-2532       Volvo Award 
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